NPM: 1106080202

1.1 Background of the study
Reading has an important role in the second or foreign language classroom. Reading can aid in vocabulary development, and “[…] Nagy, Herman, and Anderson (1985) argue that picking up word meanings by reading is 10 times faster than intensive vocabulary instruction” (Krashen, 1993, p. 15). Reading can also aid other skills, as “several studies confirm that those who read more in their second language also write better in that language (Salyer 1987; Janopoulos 1986; Kaplan and Palhinda 1981)” (Krashen, 1993, p. 7). Students usually feel bored in reading classroom. The most important factor in the development of reading skills is the amount of time a student actually spends reading (Cummins, 2003, p. 20). So teachers must make the classroom look interest and enjoyable.
Manga is a Japanese style of print cartoon or graphic novel. Manga deals with narrative text because it tells about a story/ fiction, like an animal fiction, fairy tale, etc. Students usually have difficulties in reading narrative text. That’s why the writer uses Manga that contain with picture and speech bubbles to help students in understanding the text. But not all Manga are good for children. A teacher must choose the suitable Manga for children selectively before. Choosing age-appropriate Manga books for the students can be done by look at the genre of Manga.
By using Manga the teacher can also teach about idiom, stress, and slang. The writer thinks that Manga is suitable media for beginner learners like in junior high school. The writer will try to use it in eighth of SMPN 7 Tuban.

1.2 Statement of the problem
1. How effectiveness using Manga in teaching narrative text of reading classroom?
2. How are the uses of Manga in teaching narrative text of reading classroom?

1.3 Purpose of the study
1. To know how effectiveness using Manga in teaching narrative text of reading classroom.
2. To describe the use of Manga in teaching narrative text of reading classroom?

1.4 Limitation of the study
The study is limited to discussion about the effectiveness of Manga and how to use Manga in teaching narrative text of reading classroom.
1.5 Significance of the study
This study has some significance. By using Manga or comics as a media in reading classroom, the writer hopes that students more interesting and excited to study in the class. So it can encourage and motivate students in reading. The writer also hopes that Manga can help students in understanding the meaning of the narrative text.
1.6 Definition of key terms
1. Manga
Manga are Japanese comic books. Manga is often made into Japanese cartoons, or Anime. The art in Manga has a very definite look to it and is often referred to as “Manga Style.”
2. Narrative text
Narrative text is a kind of text that usually deals with fiction story. The purpose of the text is to entertain or to amuse the readers about the story.

2.1 The concept of Manga
Manga consist of comics and print cartoons in the Japanese language and conforming to the style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. In their modern form, manga date from shortly after World War II, but they have a long, complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art. In Japan, people of all ages read manga. The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, horror, sexuality, and business/commerce, among others.
The word Manga can be translated as, “humorous pictures.” Manga became very popular in the 20th century when laws prohibiting the publication of those kinds of items were lifted. It has since become a huge part of Japanese culture. Unlike in America, Manga is read by most people in the country. The artists and writer of Manga are well respected for their work, much like the writers of literature in America.
There are many characteristics that make Manga very distinctive. The largest thing that Manga art is known for is its characters. Manga characters almost always have large eyes, small mouths, and they also usually have abnormal hair color. Manga characters usually show over exaggerated emotions. When a character cries, it usually pours out in buckets, when they laugh, their face seems engulfed by the size of their mouths and their eyes become slits. An angry character will have rosy cheeks and steam rolling from around their body. This use of emotion would most likely be categorized as cartoonish.
Since Manga is so widely popular in Japan, different kinds of Manga have become known. Each has its own title and when getting into Manga, it can help to know what is what. Below is a list of the different kinds of Manga.
1. Shônen – Boy’s Manga – (Pronounced Show-Nen)
2. Shôjo – Girl’s Manga – (Pronounced Show-Joe)
3. Seinen – Men’s Manga – (Pronounced Say-Nen)
4. Josei (or redikomi) – Women’s Manga – (Pronounced Joe-Say)
5. Kodomo – Children’s Manga – (Pronounced Kow-Dow-Mow)
In this study, the writer might use Shonen, Shojo, or Kodomo that suitable with the students in Junior High School.
2.2 Concept of Narrative
Narrative text is a text which contains about story (fiction/ nonfiction/ tales/ folktales/ fables/ myths/ epic) and its plot consists of climax of the story (complication) then followed by the resolution.
A narrative text is a text amuses, entertains and deals with actual or vicarious experience in different ways. Narrative deals with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution.
The generic structure of a narrative text:
1. Orientation: sets the scene and introduces the participants
2. Complication: a crisis arises
3. Resolution: the crisis is resolved, for the better or for worse.
4. Re-orientation: optional
5. Evaluation: a stepping back to evaluate the plight
2.3 Relation between narrative text and Manga
The writer chooses Manga as the media to teach narrative because Manga is a kind of story book that deal with the generic structure of Narrative text. Manga has the criteria as a narrative text. It contains about story (fiction/ nonfiction/ tales/ folktales/ fables/ myths/ epic) and its plot consists of climax of the story (complication) then followed by the resolution.
Manga covered with pictures in every pages and speech bubbles that make reader easier to understand the story. But, Manga usually deal with directly conversation and seldom use in past tenses. So, the teacher (writer) must lead the students. In Manga there are many idioms and slang in spoken English informally, so teacher can also introduce students many new vocabularies and idiom. Manga is read extensively by children of all abilities who benefit considerably from the exposure to diverse cultures and different types of stories.
2.4 Activities in the classroom
There are many interest activities that can be done in the classroom by using Manga. For reading classroom, the teacher (writer) can make some activities below in whilst reading stage:
The teacher asks students to read one chapter of the Manga book. Teacher introduces idiom, slang and new vocabularies to the students. Then, teacher can asks students to identify the characters of the story and what the characterization, what the conflict, what the setting, etc. teacher can also asks students reading aloud as a role play with the characters in Manga. It is necessary because reading aloud is still needed in Junior High School.

3.1 Research Design
In this research the writer used experimental design. The writer uses Manga or comics to the experiment class as an alternative media of teaching narrative text in reading classroom.
3.2 Subject of the study
The subject of the study is the students in grade eight of SMPN 7 TUBAN. But not all of students of grade eight, because they are too many. So the writer takes sample of one teacher and a class at the eighth.
3.3 instrument of data collection
• Questionnaire
Questionnaire is a set of written questions that used to obtain information from the respondents (students).
• Observation
Observation is the act of investigating the activities of the teacher and students in the class.
3.4 Data collection
The writer (researcher) observes to the class first to get information about the activity of teacher and students in the classroom. So the writer knows about the difficulties the students get in understanding narrative text. Then, the writer participates directly in the classroom to teach narrative text by using Manga or comics. After that, the writer give the questionnaire and test on paper to the respondents (students) to know how effectiveness of using Manga in reading.
3.5 Data analysis
There are two parts in analysis of the data. First, the writer analyzes the data before using Manga in the class. Second, the writer analyzes the data after using Manga in the class that collected from the test and questionnaire. It can be seen from the result of the test, how many students that pass of passing grade or it can be seen by Mean of the class. This strategy is success if Mean of class in test after using Manga is higher than before using Manga.

• Krashen, S. (1993). the power of reading: Insights from the research. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Retrieved June 2, 2011 from the World Wide Web: http://www.iteslj.ogr/techniques/Derrick-UsingComics.html
• Cummins, J. (2003). Reading and the bilingual student: Fact and friction. In Garcia, G. (Ed.). English learners: Reaching the highest level of English literacy (pp. 2-33). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Retrieved June 2, 2011 from the World Wide Web: http://www.iteslj.ogr/techniques/Derrick-UsingComics.html Retrieved June 9, 2011 Retrieved June 23, 2011 Retrieved June 25, 2011

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