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the influence of emotional intelligence teen who loves jazz music with teenagers who like rock music

jazz is a genre that originated in the United States in the early 20th century with the roots of African and European music.Jazz is the music that much use of guitar, trombone, piano, trumpet, and saxophone. Important element in jazz is the blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and shuffle notes.

Rock music is one genre in the repertoire of popular music world that is usually dominated by vocals, guitar, drums and bass. many also with the addition of instruments such as keyboard, piano and synthesizer. Rock music usually has a strong beat and is dominated by guitars, both electric and acoustic.

Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize the emotional self, which is a person’s ability to recognize his own feelings as feelings or emotions that arise, and he was able to recognize his own emotions when he has a high sensitivity of their true feelings and then take decisions in a stable.The ability to manage emotions is a person’s ability to control his own feelings so as not to explode and can ultimately affect their behavior accordingly. For example someone who is angry, the anger that still can be well controlled without having to produce an ultimately regret in the future.
Sensitivity will taste wonderful arise through experience that can be obtained from live the music. Sensitivity is an important element of personality in order to mobilize and improve the quality of life. Someone has a high sensitivity for their feelings then he will be able to take decisions firmly and forming a formidable personality.

Teens, is a social person that requires relationships and communication with others to humanize himself. Teenagers want to be loved, to be recognized, and appreciated. Desiring also to be calculated and gain a place in the group. It is clear that individuality and sociality are complementary elements, complement and supplement in existence adolescents.Emotional intelligence should be developed because it is what underlies one’s skills in the community soon, so that will make the whole potential of the child can grow more optimally.Ideally one can master the cognitive skills as well as social emotional skills. music can play a role in the maturation process of the right hemisphere of the brain, although they could affect the left hemisphere, because the cross-over from right to left and vice versa is a very complex network of poles, poles neuronal in the brain.
Stock or feelings and emotions better environment perception, expression, and awareness of emotional experience, predominantly mediated by the right brain hemisphere. That is, this hemisphere plays a large role in the process of emotional development, which is essential for the development of human nature is human.
Subtlety and sensitivity to follow a person to feel the feelings of others, appreciate the experience of living with the “feelings”, is a right brain function, is the ability to understand other people’s feelings, to understand the experience is the ratio of left brain function. Ability to communicate well with others and humanity is the mixing (blending between the left and right brain).

Music is described as one of “pure form” expression of emotion. Music contains a variety of contour, spacing, variations in intensity and broad sound modulation, in accordance with the components of human emotions.
D. Effect of Music On Intelligence Brain
IQ (Intelegent Quotien), EQ (Emotional Quotien) and SQ (Spiritual Quotien) very big influence on the development of a child’s intelligence. In music, IQ, EQ, SQ can be likened to the beat, rhythm, and melody. Children in the womb usually used to listen to music and intelegensinya emotional intelligence is more developed than children who rarely listen to music. The meaning of the music here is music that has a regular rhythm and the tones are regular, not the tones “tilted” (or dangdut rock music for example) would be better to select a song that is soft and nuanced religious spiritual. The level of discipline and absorbing power (easy to memorize) a child who frequently listen to music are also usually better than children who rarely listen to music (of course done by habituation).

Music is affecting the lives of everyday people to become an integral and necessary balance the influence of harmony,” Beat effect on the body, affect the soul of rhythm, melody while the effect on the spirit. “The most obvious example that beat greatly affect the body is in rock music. Certainly there are no adults and healthy anak2 hear rock music when his body did not move. Everything rocked, and even tends to be uncontrollable. Even the trend of “head banger”, a twisting motion that tight head (now popularized by the trio with music dangdut rocknya) seemed to follow him without feeling tired. But if our hearts are hard, try to listen to beautiful music, which has a regular rhythm. The feeling we will be better and feel more comfortable. Even hospitals both inside and outside the country many of which broadcast beautiful songs to help cure his patients, especially in the operating process. That is one proof, that greatly affect the rhythm of the human soul. While the melody greatly affect the spirit. If we watch horror movies that make us stand chilling or sad movies, always sounded melodies that seem mystical and heartbreaking, the religious rituals are also widely used melody seakan2 bring the spirit of man out of the worldly nature so to shed tears.
In sport yoga, music from the sounds of nature around him like a mountain or beach, this is now a trend of yoga as a sport which is loved artis2 since proven to reduce stress and refresh the body. Therefore intelligence in selecting the music is the most important thing for humans to produce personal behavior.

TUGAS DRAMA EL…

TUGAS DRAMA
ELY SURYANING 2008-E

-ASIDE:Words spoken by an actor directly to the audience,which are not”heard”by the other characters on stage during a play.
-CATASTHROPE:The action at the end of a tragedy that initiates the denouement or falling action of a play.
-DENOUEMENT:The resolution of the plot of a literary work.
-CATHARSIS:The purging of the feelings of pity and fear that,according to aristotk,occur in the audience experiences catharsis at the end of play,following the catasthrope.
-CHORUS:A group of characters in greek tragedy (and in later forms of drama),who comment on the action of a play without participation in it.their leader is the choragos.
-DUES EX MACHINE:A god who resolves the entanglements of a play by supernatural intervention.
-EXPOSITION:The first stage of a fictional or dramatic plot,in which necessary background informationis provided.A dialogue that fiils the audience in on events that occured before the action of the play begin,but which are important in the development of its plot.
-FLASHBACK:An interruption of a work’s chronology to describe or present an incident that occured prior the main time frame of a work’s action.writers use flashbacks to complicate the sense of chronology in the plot of their works and to convey the richness of the experience of human time.
-FOIL:A character who contrasts and parallels the main character in a play or story.

THE USE OF CIRCLE GAMES AS A STRATEGY TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS’ MASTERY IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY TO THE FOURTH GRADE OF SDN O1 SUMURJALAK .PLUMPANG

P R O P O S A L

By :
SRI MUJIYATMI WULAN MEI
1106080119

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY PGRI RONGGOLAWE TUBAN

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The increasing need caused by developing era demanded the global society to enhance their human resources quality in order to compete to the other countries. In responding this situation, the role of communication had become a part that could not be separated from this condition. As English had become very powerful language in the world, it became one of international languages, most global community used English as a media of communication with another. Different from Singapore, Bangkok, Malaysia and India, they put English as their second language as their language communication while Indonesia put English as its foreign language. It was used as an instrument of utilizing modern sciences and
technology for national development and it was also used as a mean of communication when Indonesian wanted to communicate to people from overseas. No doubt that only few Indonesians mastered of it, most of them tended to ignore it, they used to think that foreign language was not something useful for their daily life and learned of it would only waste of time.
However, nowadays, the assumption was gradually scraped off by the developing era that demanded the society to be more competitive and to be able to enhance their human resources quality. Therefore, the role of English was needed to face the era of globalization, where it would be many new things happened in our nation. Since English recently was treated as foreign and important language for Indonesian, it had a major portion in Indonesian educational system and became a compulsory subject to study either in junior or senior high schools in today’s Indonesian educational system. Ricardo Schutz (2007) said that English in its role as a global language that it had become one of the most important academic and professional tools. The English language was recognized as undoubtedly the most important language for the increasingly mobile international community to learn. This was a fact that seemed to be irreversible. English had become the official language of the business and scientific worlds. The massive trend of learning English was not without a reason. The development of the country’s economy, science and technology that tended to be influenced by many English speaking countries had put people who understood English in more advantageous position, especially in job finding. Many Indonesian people started to believe that English would help them so much in finding a job than those who did not.
As the most important foreign language in Indonesia, English became one of the compulsory subjects taught in junior high school, senior high school and some semesters at university. As the result, the government always made effort to improve the quality of English teaching. By improving the teachers’ quality and other components involved in educational process, the English teaching in Indonesia improved time to time. In line with the government’s plan to have nine compulsory studies, it was possible to teach English in elementary school. By applying the foreign language to early level (elementary school students), the students’ language mastery was expected to be satisfactory although it was only in simple English. As I know, since English mostly became difficult subject, it handicapped them (students in any level) all the time whenever they did an English test, this condition would certainly affect to their In teaching a language, a teacher might realize that he could not apply only one or two strategies to all levels. In reverse, he was required to be able to recognize the characters of his students and to select an appropriate strategy to them. It was not something different from teaching English to elementary school students, the teacher was supposed to know that children was so closed with something fun and enjoyable. So whenever he taught, he had to be selective in choosing a strategy to introduce a learning material. A good teaching strategy would automatically facilitate him to get students’ interest in learning process. To improve the English educational system, the government had been seeking to a system which was really in line with the students’ need. In this case the teaching process could be started from earliest step, by using simple things without trying to introduce language components explicitly before they were really ready. After all of the material of the pre-level were clearly taught and understood. The language components could be little by little involved in their study as a continuity of their learning, such as phonology, spelling, structure and vocabulary. As I know that those components could not properly be separated that it because theywere related among one to the other components. One of the most important language components was vocabulary. The mastery of it would be very helpful when one was learning foreign language having a great mastery on it; it would also facilitate him to comprehend the subject learnt in which it was in English. As I concluded that the quality of one’s language skill depended on the quality and the quantity of vocabulary mastered, the more he mastered the vocabulary the better he used the language skill. This study would present a vocabulary teaching strategy to elementary school students. In which it was going to be very pleasant and interesting for young learners. The teaching strategy was about “The Use of Game (Circle Games) in Teaching Vocabulary to Elementary School Students” conducted within a set of rules in the objectives.
By providing game as a media in teaching vocabulary to elementary schoolstudents, I hoped that it would make them felt something pleasant and felt it differentfrom what they used to get in the class. The use of game would stimulate them to bemore active and it was really matched with the students’ world where pre-level students liked to study through movement. By the activity, they were given an opportunity to express their mind, emotion, feeling and attitudes when they were involved in it. Reviewed at the explanation above, I assumed that the use of game was one of good and effective ways to teach and to motivate them as young learners to study.
I.2 Reason for Choosing Topic
Game was an activity that could give enjoyment in teaching and learning process between teacher and students. It was also such a great way to encourage the whole students in the class to work together and to provide an often-welcome change in working pattern. They were mostly applied to young learners, but teenagers would play them and so would the right kind of adult class: one that did not take itself too seriously.That was the reason why I chose the topic “The Use of Circle Games as a Strategy to Improve the Students’ Mastery in English Vocabulary: An Action Research In the Case of Elementary School Students of SDN 01 Sumurjalak .as the title of my final project which was mentioned as follows:
a. The use of circle games would improve the elementary school students’ mastery in English vocabulary.
b. Vocabulary was a part of language component that played an important role in learning a language.
c. There were still many teachers who did not know what kind of teaching strategy that could be used to teach vocabulary.
d. There were still many teachers taught vocabulary through some strategies that were not appropriate with the elementary school students.
e. Many teachers still thought that teaching vocabulary through game was only wasting of time.
I.3 Statements of the Problem
I intended to focus on answering the question: How could the use of game (circle games) as a teaching strategy improve the students’ mastery in vocabulary?
1.4 The Objectives of the Study
that this was to give meaning of game in teaching vocabulary to young learner and to explain how the use of game (circle games) could improve the students’ mastery in vocabulary.
1.5 Significance of the Study
I hoped that this thesis will be useful to:
1.5.1 Students
The use of game was a great way to improve the students’ mastery in vocabulary that they could enjoy following the lesson without taking it too seriously. Moreover, by having the situation, they were expected to have an improvement in their mastery in English vocabularies, which appeared in their result of the study.
1.5.2 Teachers
It would give them a description about how to teach and to motivate the students to learn about English especially in vocabulary learning, they would not be stuck only in some particular teaching strategies. The use of game, in this context “CIRCLE GAMES” could be a good alternative or variation in teaching vocabulary, where it would make the students enjoyed following the lesson.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter concerns with some basic theories related the study. These have been used to determine the research, the data collection and data analyses during the study. This chapter consists of seven sections. First, General concept of a Language, second section is general concepts of vocabulary, third is Elementary school student, fourth teaching English vocabulary to the fourth graders of elementary school, fifth is the principle of teaching vocabulary, sixth is teaching vocabulary, seventh is strategy of teaching vocabulary to elementary school students, eight is general concept of game, ninth is total physical response in the classroom and tenth is action research from some linguists that underline the topic of my study. I expect that this study will give the readers a wider or further understanding about this thesis.
2.1 General Concept of a Language
A language is a systematic means of communication by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. It is the code we all use to express ourselves and communicate to others. It is a communication by word of mouth and it is the mental faculty or power of vocal communication.Language is a system for communicating ideas and feelings using sounds, gestures, signs or marks. Dr.G.Manivannan (2006:1) in his article says that any means of communicating ideas, specifically, human speech, and the expression of ideas by the voice and sounds articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth is a language. This is a system for communication. A language is the written and spoken methods of combining words to create meaning used by a particular group of people. Language, so far as I know, is something specific to humans, that is to say it is the basic capacity that distinguishes humans from all other living beings. Dr.G.Manivannan (2006:1) in his article adds that language therefore remains potentially a communicative medium capable of expressing ideas and concepts as well as moods, feelings and attitudes.
A set of linguists who based their assumptions of language on psychology made claims that language is nothing but ‘habit formation’. According to them, language is learnt through use, through practice. In their view, ‘the more one is to the use of language, the better one learns’.Written languages use symbols (characters) to build words. The entire set of words is the language’s vocabulary. The ways in which the words can be meaningfully combined is defined by the language’s syntax and grammar. The actual meaning of words and combinations of words is defined by the language’s semantics.
2.2 General Concept of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is one of the four language components, which are spelling, grammar, phonology and vocabulary. It is an important element that cannot be separated from each other in language learning process, Since English as foreign language becomes an international language. No wonder, it becomes so important for foreign language learners to learn and master on it that it is a basic element of a language used before learning more about the foreign language. It happens when one who is learning a language has a great mastery on vocabulary, he will succeed in using the language being studied either in comprehending the meaning of a word in the context of spoken or written language.
To get further understanding about vocabulary, Donna (2007) explains that vocabulary is the study of:
a. The meanings of words
Many words have several different meanings each, study the meanings of the words and the part of speech.
b. How the words are used
Study the words in context, apply what you learn by writing sentences with your words.
c. Root words, prefixes, suffixes
Studying these will aid in the study of vocabulary.
d. Analogies
This is comparing two pairs of words and choosing the pair that goes together. Moreover According to Kamil & Hiebert (2007) in their article accessed from internet, they broadly define; vocabulary is knowledge of words and word meanings.
However, vocabulary is more complex than this definition suggests. First, words
come in two forms: oral and print. Oral vocabulary includes those words that they recognize and use in listening and speaking. Print vocabulary includes those words that they recognize and use in reading and writing. Second, word knowledge also comes in two forms, receptive and productive. Receptive vocabulary includes words they recognize when they hear or see them. Kamil & Hiebert (2007) in their article, they also say that Productive vocabulary includes words that they use when they speak or write. Receptive vocabulary is typically larger than productive vocabulary, and may include many words to which they assign some meaning, even if they do not know their full definitions and connotations or ever use them as they speak and write. In line with the statement above, I define vocabulary as knowledge of words and word meanings in both oral and print language and in productive and receptive forms. More specifically, vocabulary can be used to refer to the kind of words that
students must know to read increasingly demanding skills with comprehension. I begin by looking closely at why developing this kind of vocabulary is important to some skills such as reading, listening, writing, and speaking. In addition, vocabulary will not only be focused on learning process which leads to improve the students’ mastery of language. Furthermore, Vocabulary will let them know about a culture education by looking at its meaning, where vocabularies product learned is completely different from Indonesian language. Vocabulary is the fundamental part of language, which is used in any situation either; it is in the form of spoken or written language. Review at the discussions above, I conclude that the more vocabulary the learners have, the easier for them to develop their four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing) and learn English second language generally
2.3 Elementary School Students
Elementary school students are categorized as young learners that have different characteristic from adult learners. They usually consist of students at the age of 6 to 12 years old, where the element of fun becomes a part of their world. To give further comprehension about them, Harmer (2001:38) states some general of children, as follows:
a. They respond to meaning even if they do not understand the words.
b. They often learn indirectly than directly.
c. Their understanding comes not just from the explanation, but also from what they see and hear and crucially have a chance to touch and interactwith.
d. They generally display an enthusiasm for learning and curiosity about the world around them.
e. They have a need for individual attention and approval from their teacher.
f. They are keen on talking about themselves and responding well to learning that use themselves and their own lives as main topic in the classroom.
g. They have limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging can make them easily getting bored, losing interaction after 10 minutes or so.
Based on the points stated by Hammer above, I assume that Elementary school students are very enthusiastic in finding out, understanding and learning everything. It seems that they like learning something that involves a new thing and the elements of fun such as a game, where they can laugh, talk, and feel happy during the class and the most important thing that they can enjoy and absorb the sense of thelesson.
2.4 Teaching English Vocabulary to the Fourth Graders of Elementary School
Teaching English to elementary school students as a local content is the students are expected to have skills of the language in simple English with emphasis on listening, speaking, reading, and writing skill using selected topic related to their environmental needs. Related to the objective above, the material for the fourth grade, most topics about center of interest that they often face in their life. The topics include things inside a class and things around a school. Those topics are so familiar with students that may see it everyday when they attend to their school. So, it is easier for them to perform and absorb the words given which are about things inside the class and things around the school. There is no basic rule on how many words should be given to the fourth graders of elementary school. As ten up to eleven years old children, the fourth graders should not be given too many words. It is better to give them about seven or eight new words at one time. To help the learners in learning foreign language Marry Slaterry and Jane Willis (2003:4) suggest some ways to teach them:
a. Make learning English enjoyable and fun
b. Don’t worry about mistake, be encouraging; make sure children feel comfortable and not afraid to take part.
c. Use a lot of gestures, action, pictures to demonstrate what you mean.
d. Talk a lot to them use English, especially about things they can see.
e. Play game, sing a song, and say rhymes and chants together.
f. Tell simple stories in English, using pictures and acting with different voices.
g. Don’t worry when they use their mother tongue. You can answer a mother tongue question in English and sometimes recast in Englis what they say in their mother tongue.
h. Consistently recycle new language but don’t be afraid to add new things or to use words they won’t to know.
i. Plan lesson with varied activities, some quiet, some noisy, some sitting, some standing and moving.
According to the explanation above, I conclude that teaching vocabulary tothe fourth graders; teacher should not give the students too many new words in a lesson. It is better to give them about seven or eight new words rather than giving them many words. It is better to practice the words given in order to achieve comprehension. Few words would help them memorizing the words quickly and to internalize them. In order to help language learners to develop their language ability, language teacher can refer to the suggestion stated by Marry Slaterry and Jane Willis in their book (2003:4) about how to help young learners in learning English as their foreign language.
2.5 The Principle of Teaching Vocabulary
Recognizing what students need in learning is necessary for a teacher. The process of transferring knowledge will not simply succeed if he can not see his students’ learning absorbing capability toward the material taught and the teaching portion should be given to. It is going to be harder for a teacher to teach young learners than adult, it is because of their character. Involving many theories are not a good idea; I believe, this will not maximally work on them and even bore the pupils. That is a reason; the teaching process must have principles as a reference. To avoid errors in teaching young learner, Cameron (2001: 81) states about several principles of teaching to young learners, they are:
a. The types of words that children find possible to learn with shift.
b. Vocabulary development is not just learning more words but it is also importance about expanding and deepening word knowledge.
c. Words and words knowledge can be seen as being linked in network of meaning.
d. Basic level words are likely too be more appropriate for children, or when learning vocabulary for new concepts.
e. Children change in how they can learn words. Looking at the importance of English foreign language to young learners, the teaching principles will very influence the foreign language learners’ understanding toward the material taught. That is the reason; the teaching must be based on an appropriate strategy referred to the teaching principles, so that the learners, through a well teaching process and structurally transferred, will gain a good English foundation.
Since vocabulary becomes the topic of discussion, the other principles also stated by James Coady (1997) in his article gained from internet offers a synthesis of research on foreign language vocabulary acquisition. He suggests these implications for pedagogy:
Three main principles appear to underlie effective vocabulary teaching. First, learners should be provided with both definitional and contextual information about words. In the case of foreign language learners, this could be related to their often-felt need for dictionary access. Second, learners should be encouraged to process information about words at a deeper level. Among foreign language learners this could be reflected in the current emphasis on authentic communicative activities. Finally, learners need multiple exposures to words.
2.6 Teaching of Vocabulary
According to Linda Diamond and Linda Gutlohn (2006) in their article they say that Vocabulary is the knowledge of words and word meanings. As Steven Stahl (2005) puts it, “Vocabulary knowledge is knowledge; the knowledge of a word not only implies a definition, but also implies how that word fits into the world.” Vocabulary knowledge is not something that can ever be fully mastered; it is something that expands and deepens over the course of a lifetime. Instruction in vocabulary involves far more than looking up words in a dictionary and using the words in a sentence. Vocabulary is acquired incidentally through indirect exposure to words and intentionally through explicit instruction in specific words and word17
learning strategies. According to Michael Graves (2000) in his article accessed from internet says that there are four components of an effective vocabulary program:
a. Wide or extensive independent reading to expand word knowledge
b. Instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words
c. Instruction in independent word-learning strategies, and
d. Word consciousness and word-play activities to motivate and enhance learning.
In addition, something which is really needed to a teacher to concern is about components of vocabulary instruction. According to Linda Diamond and Linda Gutlohn (2006) in their article add that components of vocabulary instruction are as
follows:
a. Intentional vocabulary teaching
b. Specific Word Instruction
a) Selecting Words to Teach
b) Rich and Robust Instruction
c. Word-Learning Strategies
a) Dictionary Use
b) Morphemic Analysis
c) Cognate Awareness
d) Contextual Analysis
According to the National Reading Panel (2000) says that explicit instruction of vocabulary is highly effective. To develop vocabulary intentionally, students should be explicitly taught both specific words and word-learning strategies. To deepen students’ knowledge of word meanings, specific word instruction should be robust. Beck et al., (2002) sees vocabulary in rich contexts provided by authentic texts, rather than in isolated vocabulary drills, produces robust vocabulary learning. National Reading Panel (2000) adds that such instruction often does not begin with a definition, for the ability to give a definition is often the result of knowing what the word means. Rich and robust vocabulary instruction goes beyond definitional knowledge; it gets students actively engaged in using and thinking about word
meanings and in creating relationships among words. Explicit instruction in word-learning strategies gives students tools for independently determining the meanings of unfamiliar words that have not been explicitly introduced in class. Since students encounter so many unfamiliar words in their reading, any help provided by such strategies can be useful. Word-learning strategies include dictionary use, morphemic analysis, and contextual analysis. For English language learners whose language shares cognates with English, cognate awareness is also an important strategy. Dictionary use teaches students about multiple word meanings, as well as the importance of choosing the appropriate definition to fit the particular context. Morphemic analysis is the process of deriving a word’s meaning by analyzing its meaningful parts, or morphemes. Such word parts include root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Contextual analysis involves inferring the meaning of an unfamiliar word by scrutinizing the text surrounding it. Instruction in contextual analysis generally involves teaching students to employ both generic and specific types of context clues.
2.7 Strategy of Teaching Vocabulary to Elementary School Students
Since teaching has not been an easy work, especially in teaching to elementary school students. Teacher is required to be careful in choosing the match teaching strategy to them if he wants to get satisfactory result of teaching. This study involves “TPR” or “Total Physical language through physical (motor) activities that requires the teacher to teach them consists of primary commands, which children (elementary school students) respond physically before they begin to produce verbal responses. To calm lively students and focus them, I try to use some basic TPR activities, which demand their concentration. For example, “if you’re ready to start the lesson, touch your head”, “if you’re ready to start the lesson, raise your hands” and so on.
Teaching English vocabulary to young learners needs an extra work and an appropriate teaching technique which is adjusted to the students’ need. Many strategies can be applied to teach young learners and give very enjoyable for them in learning English as a foreign language; one of techniques that are possible to apply is game. It involves the elements of fun that make them really enjoy following the lesson. The way of teaching used to be based on TPR, where it involves an activity dealing with movements and it is very possible to reduce learners’ stress. Moreover, the teacher will be facilitated to create a positive mood to his learners in a class. On the other side, to encourage students to keep good personal vocabulary records. Just a list of new words that came up in the lesson is not very useful after a couple of days. Olha (2007) in his article gives some tips on teaching vocabulary that students may find it useful to use any of the following:
a. Translation
b. Examples e.g. furniture e.g. table, chair, wardrobe
c. Picture
d. Definition in English
e. Opposite
f. Word within meaningful example sentence (‘I like rollerblading’ does
NOT help students remember what rollerblading means, whereas a picture
or translation might).
g. Collocation e.g. to apply for a job
h. Diagram or picture e.g. for parts of the body
Reading extensively doesn’t automatically improve students’ use of vocabulary. To encourage their expansion of vocabulary, get students to collect new words they have learnt and to use them soon in their own writing. Collect new words learnt in class on large sheets of paper on the classroom walls and refer to them often, encouraging students to use them in spoken and written English.
2.8 General Concept of Game
Teaching should not be always based on one or two strategies, they can be various, where teacher asked to be creative so that the class will not be passive and students will be stimulated to be more interested in learning and the result expected from the process of teaching and learning will be well transferred to students. As being stated that game is one of alternatives that can be used to teach English, everyone believes, teaching process through a game will give a fun.
Wikipedia (2011) in its article retrieved from internet says that a game is a recreational activity involving one or more players. This can be defined by A) a goal
that the players try to reach, B) some set of rules that determines what the players can or can not do. Game is played primarily for entertainment or enjoyment, but may also serve an educational. Furthermore, http://www.eiha.co.uk/glossary.html (2011) in its article says, a game is a meeting of two teams playing for a specific length of time for the purpose of declaring a winner through the scoring of goals. The game consists of regular playing time and overtime, if such is required.
Game is one of many teaching strategies can be engaged to foreign language
learners, it is believed that it can give an elements of fun to learners. It has been the reason why I have been motivated to present a teaching strategy which involves a game as a media for teaching on vocabulary to young learners. The game will be circle games, “games are any games or activities that involve the whole class, sitting in a circle, that the games recycle vocabulary and involve an element of fun”, Joanna Budden, British Council, Spain (2006).
2.9 Total Physical Response (TPR) in a Classroom
Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through physical(motor) activity. Asher, James (2000) in his article claims that second language learning should be based on model of first language learning. That the model has three vital aspects: Understanding the spoken language must come before speaking,
Understanding is developed through body movement and the listening period creates a readiness to speak, it is also recommended that TPR may be used for only short periods of time because the student will get tired of doing it. The Total Physical Response method also focuses on two key components. The first component is the use of movement as a memory enhancer. The second component is imperative as the only method of instruction. This means that the teacher uses commands to direct the students. With TPR, the student is able to learn
and retain vocabulary through hands on instruction. There have been studies done on the effects of Total Physical Response. The Office of Education, the Office of Naval Research, the State of California, and San Jose State University funded these studies. These studies have shown that the drop out rate of second language learners is usually very high. However, they have found that with the use of TPR, confidence increases because second language learners feel as if they know that they can learn. Students of all ages, including adults experience instant success in understanding an alien language. They remark: “Hey, this isn’t so bad! I understand what she is saying. I didn’t know I could do this. I feel great!” , it
means that this technique will be able to apply to any age, not only child use for it but a dults can also learn a new language just as easy as a child no matter what the age Asher, James, J (2000). Many Total Physical Response based activities can be used with student of any age as long as they are cognitively ready. There are a few examples of games that involve TPR as a method of learning process, such as The Pointing Game, Identifying Emotions, Working with Shapes, and Following Recipes. These activities are all used to reinforce concepts that are being taught to the student in the class. These activities include concept such as body parts, emotions such as cry, colors, numbers, and shapes. With the more advanced students, the teacher can introduce the recipe activity to teach cooking, measuring, and following recipes.
In addition, Asher (2007), he also says about principles of using TPR in teaching foreign language that may help a language teacher in applying the method to his learners, he says that there are three principles he elaborates;
a. Foreign language learning is parallel to first language learning and should reflect the same naturalistic processes
b. Listening should develop before speaking
c. Children respond physically to spoken language, and adult learners learn better if they do that too
d. Once listening comprehension has been developed, speech develops naturally and effortlessly out of it.
e. Adults should use right-brain motor activities, while the left hemisphere watches and learns
f. Delaying speech reduces stress.
With this method, the students do not have to memorize all the vocabulary.
By listening, seeing, and acting out the story line they easily remember. TPR lets the student speak freely and without editing their speech or stopping to think about how to say it. TPR is an effective classroom method that works for students of all ages. The foreign language learners are able to pick up the target language quickly and able to retain what they learn. So I believe that this is a good method that I would use to teach the foreign language learners in my class.

2.10 Action Research
members.ozemail.com.au/~mghslib/subjects/society%20culture/Glossary.htm (2011) in its article found from internet says that action research is an informal, qualitative, interpretive, reflective and experimental methodology that requires all the participants to be collaborative researchers. Action research is carried out by people who usually recognize a problem or limitation in their workplace situation and, together, devise a plan to counteract the problem, implement the plan, observe what happens, reflect on these outcomes, revise the plan, implement it, reflect, and revise and so on.
Another statement is also conveyed by with Carr and Kemmis (1986) in Jean McNiff, (1998:2), they say that action research is a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants (teachers, students or principals), for example, in social (including education) situation in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices, (b) their understanding of these practice, and (c) the situations (institutions) in which this practices are carried out. The focus of action research is in classrooms and schools. However, the purpose of it is to encourage the teacher to become involved in his or her own practice and to view him or herself as researcher. As stated before that Action research in this study is conducted in a class and carried out by a teacher and students as participant. Science across the curriculum (2007) in its article says that one of the goals of action research is to enhance the lives of students and teachers through educational change. However, many teachers may be reluctant to engage in action research because they have false assumptions about the process or because they are unaware of the many benefits that stem from this form of research. Below is a list of some of the potential benefits of action research.
a. Teachers who conduct action research are directly responsible for making decisions. They determine the issues/problems to be researched and they develop and implement the inquiry.
b. Action research allows for the improvement of student learning and the enhancement of teaching.
c. Collaboration enriches working relationships amongst teachers.
d. Through action research, teachers gain a greater understanding of their own practice and their students’ behaviors. They are therefore “empowered to make informed decisions about what to change and what not to change, link prior knowledge to new information, learn from experience (even failures) and ask questions and systematically find answers.”
e. Action research allows teachers to integrate theory (research findings) and practice.
f. Action research can increase teamwork, student achievement and morale among teachers.
g. Action research “satisfies the desire of all teachers to increase the predictability of what happens in their classrooms – in particular, to increase the likelihood that a given curriculum, instructional strategy or use of technology will positively affect student outcomes.”
h. Action research allows teachers to gain knowledge in research methods. Action research is aimed to encourage a teacher to administer a learning process well, help him to invent a new way of teaching so that it can be various, in which the method of teaching, which is monotonous, will make the students bored, and eventually, they assume that English is a boring lesson. Moreover, in action research, the teacher is given an opportunity to monitor his students’ behavior, activity as well as acquiring knowledge, that he is able to measure the progress of his students in learning the second language during the action research is engaged.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
In this chapter, I would present with the method of study, which was
important as a guideline to attain the objectivity of the study. It provided with
research design, subject of study, source of data, instrument of study, technique of
collecting data, procedure of collecting data in the action research, criterion of
assessment and data processing, will be mentioned as follows:
3.1 Research Design
Research design in this study was to seek and to answer the question of the
study “How could the use of game (circle games) as a teaching strategy improve the
students’ mastery in vocabulary?”
In doing so, I intended to use quantitative research to complete this study.
Wikipedia (2010) in its article said that Quantitative methods were research methods
dealing with numbers and anything that was measurable. It was generally approached
using scientific methods which include:
a. The generation of models, theories and hypotheses
b. The development of instruments and methods for measurement
c. Experimental control and manipulation of variables
d. Collection of empirical data
e. Modeling and analysis of data
f. Evaluation of results
Wikipedia (2010) in its article also said, the objective of quantitative research
was to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses pertaining
to natural phenomena. The process of measurement was central to quantitative
research because it provided the fundamental connection between empirical
observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.
3.2 Subject of Study
Focusing on the topic of “The Use of Circle Games as a Strategy to Improve
the Students’ Mastery in English Vocabulary: An Action Research In the Case of
Elementary School Students of SDN 01 Sumurjalak – Plumpang”, the number
of the students in the class were 26, and they were12 girls and 14 boys.
3.3 Source of Data
Source of the data would be based on two kinds of data. They were primary
and secondary data. According to Mark Kelly (2007) in his article, Primary data was data that I collected myself using such methods as:
a. Direct observation – lets the researcher focused on details of importance to
him; lets he saw a system in real rather than theoretical use (other faults
were unlikely or trivial in theory but quite real and annoying in practice);
b. Surveys – written surveys let him collected considerable quantities ofdetailed data. He had to either trust the honesty of the people surveyed orbuild in self-verifying questions (e.g. questions 9 and 24 asked basicallythe same thing but using different words – different answers might indicatethe surveyed person was being inconsistent, dishonest or inattentive).
c. Interviews – slow, expensive, and they took people away from theirregular jobs, but they allowed in-depth questioning and follow-upquestions. They also showed non-verbal communication such as facepulling,fidgeting, shrugging, hand gestures, sarcastic expressions thatadded further meaning to spoken words. e.g. “I think it’s a GREATsystem” could mean vastly different things depending on whether theperson was sneering at the time! A problem with interviews was that people might say what they thought the interviewer wants to hear; they might avoid being honestly critical in case their jobs or reputation might suffer.
d. Logs (e.g. fault logs, error logs, complaint logs, transaction logs). Good,empirical, objective data sources (usually, if they are used well). Could yield lots of valuable data about system performance over time under different conditions.Primary data was a data that could be relied on because I knew where it came and what was done to it. While, secondary data was a data which was collected from external sources such as:
a. TV, radio, internet
b. magazines, newspapers
c. reviews
d. research articles
e. stories told by people you knew
There’s a lot more secondary data than primary data, and secondary data was
data which was much cheaper and easier to acquire than primary data. The problem
was that often the reliability, accuracy and integrity of the data was uncertain. Who
collected it? Could they be trusted? Did they do any preprocessing of the data? Was it
biased? How old was it? Where was it collected? Could the data be verified, or did it
have to be taken on faith?
Often secondary data had been pre-processed to give totals or averages and
the original details were lost so you couldn’t verify it by replicating the methods used
by the original data collectors.
In short, to complete this study I intended to use primary data because it gave
data which was trustworthy than secondary data although it was expensive and
difficult to acquire. Secondary data was cheap and easy to collect, but might be
treated with caution.
3.4 Instruments of Study
I used four kinds of instruments in doing it, they were pictures, field notes,
test, and questionnaire in order to identify whether or not it was an effective way to
teach vocabulary to elementary school students.
3.4.1 Pictures
This study involved pictures as a media of teaching to elementary students,
while pictures according to en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picture (2010) in its article, in
common usage, an image or picture was an artifact that reproduces the likeness of
some subject, it was usually a physical object or a person.In this study the students were demanded to create the pictures according to topic given. The teaching process would be begun at the level of the students’ knowledge about the things surrounding and it might make the teaching process became easier for me to transfer the knowledge to them. After I knew exactly about the amount of mastering vocabulary they possessed, and then it would certainly
facilitate me to create and to perform an appropriate test which it was based on the
vocabularies they create.
3.4.2 Field Notes
Due to http://www.etr.org/recapp/research/researchglossary.htm (2010) in its article said that field notes were a written/typed record of events and observations kept by a researcher. It was used to know the activity during the teaching and learning process,to record events happen in the class. For example, they were about how I as a teacher carried out the material, the students’ responses toward the lesson and the teacher, and the most important thing was a child development I might keep field notes as I observed toddlers interacting in a play group. In using the field notes, I would systematically keep notes of the class situation, either while the lesson was in progress or afterwards.
3.4.3 Tests
Referring to en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Test_(student_assessment) (2010) in its
article it said that In education, certification, counseling, and many other fields, a test or exam (short for examination) was a tool or technique intended to measure students’ expression of knowledge, skills and/or abilities. A test had more questions of greater difficulty and requires more time for completion than a quiz. It was usually divided into two or more sections, each covering a different area of the domain or taking a different approach to assessing the same aspects. In completing this study the test would be based on an achievement test which was the result later used as data. In order to get an enough data I divided the test into two: they were pre test and post-test. The purpose of giving the classroom tests was to check the students’ achievement as an indicator of progress toward educational objectives set for the students. According to Arikunto (2006: 150-151), it was the reason why the role of pre and post-test was important toward this study which it would determine whether the use of circle game was effective or not to apply to elementary school students.
3.4.4 Questionnaire
Oxford university press (2007) in its article said that a questionnaire was a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they were often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this was not always the case. Arikunto (2006:151), questionnaire could be in the form of multiple choice, essay, check-list and rating-scale so respondents would only select one of the provided answers in it. In conducting this study, I used a multiple-choice
questionnaire, in which, the respondents only selected one of the provided answers
(by crossing (A, B, C or D) in each question).
3.5 Technique of Collecting Data
Collecting data was one step used in a research, since the data was absolutely needed to verify the hypothesis. It had been recognized that a research was a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions or problems, then to solve the problems; it was necessary to provide a number of data needed. To get the data, I selected the simplest, cheapest and efficient system of data that was rapidly available and adjusted to the need of this study by using classroom action research and all of the events would be recorded during conducting the study such as the students’ motivation, atmosphere and results in every cycle into a journal and observation sheet.
3.6 Procedure of Collecting Data in the Action Research
This study was undertaken through five activities. At first, it was a pre-test,
second was the first cycle which was about the things around the class, third was the second cycle which was about the things around the school and fourth was the post test. To give a clear understanding, the four steps of the activities would be explained as follows:
3.6.1 Pre-Test
Pre-test consists of twenty-five items in the form of multiple choices.
3.6.2 First Cycle
Set up the class before the students arrived and begun the class with one of the
simple activities. It made a nice change and it gave me an opportunity to greet each student on arrival and did a register. Then calmed lively students and focus them, by saying” if you’re ready to start the activity, touch your nose”, “if you’re ready to start the game, point to the door” and so on. Then I stated the topic, “the topic was about things gave each student a piece of paper and a colored pencil. Told them that I was going to play some music and I asked them to draw whatever came into their heads. As music was playing, all students should be drawing. After 20 or 30 seconds, I stopped the music. Students stopped drawing and passed their picture to the person to the left of them in the circle. Playing the music again, and then they continued with the drawing the person next to them had started. Stopped the music again, passed the pictures on and this continued until the end of the song. When I had finished, each student would have a picture that several students contributed to and I showed the pictures they made and asked them to guess what pictures those were. Whenever the students got stuck of guessing them, I directly helped them by giving some clues and finally the correct answer.
In addition, after everything in the first cycle was completely conducted, then
I performed a simple test to check the students’ understanding toward the vocabularies gained. In this cycle, I did not only introduce and explain some basic vocabularies based on the topic, but I had also given them the way how to pronounce
and manage them to apply the vocabulary in a structural context. Indeed, the students
were not only getting vocabularies, but they were also expected to be able to apply
them in structural contexts.
3.6.3 Second Cycle
The activity in the treatment II was the same as the first cycle. But before
doing the second cycle, I took several minutes to check the students’ readiness and review some of the vocabularies taught in the first cycle. The thing differentiated between the first and second cycle was just the teaching topic which it was about “the things around the school” in this cycle.
3.6.4 Post-Test
Post-Test was done after pre-test, cycle I and II were conducted. It was aimed to measure the students’ achievement after the cycles and to compare the result between pre and post-test that would be processed in to data. Materials of the test were taken from the vocabularies taught in the activities before.
3.6.5 Questionnaire
The questionnaire was conducted after the four activities above were completely done. It was purposed only to gain data from the students’ response about the teaching strategy applied. The questionnaire consisted of five questions and it was in the form of multiple choices.
3.7 Criterion of Assessment
The students’ success and failure in doing the activities plan above would be assessed by referring to the criterion issued by department of education and culture. The criterion said that a student could be said to pass the test if he/she could solve 65% of the whole problems and a class was said to be successful if 85% of the members pass the test.
3.8 Data Processing
This study consists of five activities in which it used a method of quantitative to process the data. Then I would compare them, in order to know the result of this study, whether or not, the increase in the students’ results happened in this study.
Bellow was the formula to get valid result, I used to process the data gained:

P = Percentage
R = Score Achieved
N = Number

BIBLIOGRAPHY

, James J. (2000). Year 2000 update for the Total Physical Response, known
worldwide as TPR. http://www.tprsource.com/asher.htm,

Asher, James. (2007). Total physical response.
http://www.sil.org/ingualLinks/language.learning/WaytoApproachLanguageLearning/
TotalPhysicalResponse.htm,

Beck et al. (2002). Teaching Vocabulary. http://www.Ldonline.org/aricle/9943, accessed in
July 20, 2007
Budden, Joanna. (2006). Circle games. British Council: Spain,

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/circle-games.shtml,

Cameron, Lynne. (2001). Teaching language to young learners. New York:
Cambridge University Press.

Coady, James. (1997). English Language Institute Technology Tip of the Month:
Approaches to teaching vocabulary.

http://www.orgeonstate.edu/dept/eli/feb2000.html, accessed in July 25, 2007

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ROLE PLAY METHOD IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE TO THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENT OF SMPN 2 SOKO

PROPOSAL

By :
AMELIA RARA NARESWARI
NPM : 1106080082

English Department The Faculty of Teacher Training and education University PGRI Ronggolawe Tuban

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study
English language is one of foreign language. It become very important in education aspect. Because English language including to several language lesson in our country. And there are have several functions of foreign language; a. international communication and study of language, b. language as a system of communication, c. the most complex of man’s tool, d. each language is structurally different system. (lado, 1961:1)
In our country, English learned since elementary school. Because English is not our native language, the students are difficult to learn it, based on that statement, English is taught with many methods to make student easily to learn English as their second language. One of method that helps the students to master English is by using a role play method.
Children have enormous capacity for finding and making happy. Children will be motivated for learning if they feel enjoyable what they are doing. When the children study together with their friends in the role play , so the goal learning will be achieved. From the explanation the writer considers that role is a good method to attract the students’ interest to learn English, so that they will enjoy and they are not bored to learn it.

B. Limitation of The Study
To avoid run discussion, this study focuses on some concern identified as follow:
1. The subject of study is the Seventh Grade Student Of SMPN 2 SOKO
2. The Object of study is the Implementation Of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language
3. The materials are English texts for Elementary School
4. The methods of collecting data are observation and interview
5. The data analysis is qualitative approach

C. Statement Of The Problem
In this research the researcher taken the statement of the problem is The Implementation Of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language To The Seventh Grade Student Of SMPN 2 SOKO.

D. Purpose Of The Study
Regarding of the problem statement, this study purposes to describe the Implementation Of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language To The Seventh grade of SMPN 2 SOKO

E. Significance Of The Study
The significance of the studies are;
1. for the writer (researcher)
by using this method perhaps to researdher will get one solution to evaluate. The researcher will know what the adventages are by using role play method in teaching English language.
And next time, researcher will choose this method as one of solution to evaluate.
2. for the teacher
teacher can evaluate clearly what the result of teaching English language uses the role play method. This research can be given to the teacher as variation in teaching English language.
3. for the student
this research as preference to increase students interest in learning English language with enjoyable and can be used to broaden and develop their knowledge.

CHAPTER II
RIVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. DefenitionOf Teaching
Teaching is one of educative activities. In educational system, teaching plays an important role in which an interaction between a teacher and student occurs. Ther is an assumption that teaching is a process of transforming knowledge to students. Nowadays, teaching is defined from a different point of view. According to Howard (in Slameto, 2003:32), “ mengajar adalah suatu aktivitas untuk mencoba menolong, membimbing seseorang untuk mendapatkan , mengubah ataumengembangkan skill, attitude, ideals (cita – cita). Appreciations (penghargaan), dan knowledge.”Sudarwan Danim (1995:34) states, mengajar dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu proses mengorganisasikan atau menata sejumlah sumber potensi secara baik dan benar sehinggaterjadi proses belajar anak.” For the same case, Joko Nurkamto (2008:5) offers a viewpoint, “ mengajar bukan lagi menyampaikan pengetahuan. Mengajara dalah berpatisipasi dengan siswa dalam mengkonstuksi pengetahuan.” Thus, teaching is an activity of helping students to learn the subject matter and guiding them to understand new knowledge. In conclusion, teaching is not merely an activity of transforming information or knowledge to students. Teaching cannot be viewed as a delivery process. Teaching must be viewed as a process of systematizing situations, conditions, task materials, and opportunities in order to help students acquire and construct new knowledge.

B. The Teaching English Language
“…language teaching must provide the learner with means to select language which suitable for circumstances. In which it is used (involving command of features of dealect, register, medium and style; and which is appropriate to express his personal states and ideas) requiring mastery of a range of communicative functions.” (Wilkins in Allison,1999:29). According this statement that teacher must be in select circumstances whenever teach english language for student, especially for elementary school toward this circumstances and than they will not surfeited.
So, from those argument the researcher give the tips to teaching English for the teacher.
The first it is Dress right. Jeans, sneakers, and just-out-of-bed hair may be okay for teachers in the U.S., but in many parts of the world, a neat appearance counts far more than credentials. In Korea dark clothes lend an air of authority. Red is to be avoided at all costs. In Morocco female teachers don’t wear pants, sleeveless blouses, or short skirts.
The second it is Behave appropriately. When it asked 250 students at the Sichuan Institute of Foreign Languages in China what they liked and disliked about native speaker English teachers, the students’ main gripe was the informality of foreign teachers, who often seem to undermine their own authority by acting in undignified ways. In the U.S. teachers go on a first-name basis with students, sit on their desks, sip coffee, and even bounce off the walls without causing student discomfort or losing prestige. But these behaviors don’t export well.
The third, Don’t worry if students seem unresponsive at first. Americans are used to participatory classrooms with plenty of teacher-student dialogue. Elsewhere, students are often trained to be silent, good listeners, and memorizers. It’s disconcerting to stand in front of a sea of blank faces, but expecting it reduces the shock. Introduce new concepts, such as discussion and role-play gradually. You’ll be surprised at how students will come to embrace the change.
The fourth, Choose topics carefully. There are still many countries in the world where people are hesitant to voice opinions because of a fear of reprisal. If you’re conducting a classroom debate, remember that there’s a distaste for Western-style argumentation in Middle-Eastern societies, and in Japan it’s offensive for an individual to urge others to accept his opinion.
Certain topics may be taboo for cultural reasons: Most Americans don’t want to discuss their salaries or religious beliefs; Japanese may be disinclined to talk about their inner feelings; the French think questions about their family life are rude.
The fifth, Don’t ask, “Do you understand?” In China and Japan, students will nod yes, even if they’re totally lost, in an attempt to save face for the teacher. Even in a country as far west as Turkey, yes often means no.
The sixth, Avoid singling students out. Our society fosters a competitive individualism which is clearly manifested in our classrooms. American students are not shy about displaying their knowledge. In classrooms outside the U.S., however, showing solidarity with classmates and conforming to the status quo is often more important than looking good for the teacher. In Turkey and Montenegro students told me they disliked volunteering answers too often because it made them look like show-offs and attracted the evil eye of envy. If you want to play a game, make the competition among groups rather than among individuals. If you need to discipline a student, do so in private.
The seventh, Be aware of cross-cultural communication styles. French students appreciate wit. Venezuelan students like boisterous rapid-fire exchanges. In Japan, where debate is not as valued as in the U.S., students appreciate long pauses in discussions and silent “think time” after you ask a question. “Hollow drums make the most noise” goes a Japanese proverb, and Japanese students are uncomfortable blurting out the first thing that comes to mind. American teachers, who are uncomfortable with silence, tend to anticipate the student’s words or repeat their original question—both irritating interruptions for the Japanese student.
The eighth, Present a rationale for what you do in class. Your pedagogy is going to be very different from what students are used to. They’ll conform much more eagerly to new classroom content and procedures if they understand the benefits.
The ninth, Expect the best of your students. They’ll be serious about learning English because their economic advancement often depends upon mastering it.
The lasth, Relax and enjoy yourself. Happiness in the classroom is contagious. (online) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki) (accessed at, 17-04-2009. 09:21:04)
C. The Teaching Method
Teaching method is one component involved in the teaching learning process. Soetomo (1993:144) defines teaching method as “ …alat untuk mencapai tujuan pengajaran yang ingin dicapai ..” the same opinion is offered by WinarnoSurahmad(2003:96), “ metode adalah cara yang didalam fungsinya merupakan alat untuk mencapai tujuan.” Furthermore, Brown (2000:171) defines teaching method as;
“A generalized, prescribed set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives. Methods tend to be primarily concerned with teacher and student roles and behaviors, and secondarily with such features as linguistic and subject matter objectives, sequencing, and materials. They are almost always thought of as being broadly to a variety of audiences in a variety of contexts.”
On the other words, the teacher has to take into account some factors to select an appropriate teaching method. The factors are students, educational objectives, teaching situation, teaching facility, and teacher’s characteristic and professionalism. Each of these factors is explained in the following.
The first factor concerns with students. According to H. Muhammad Ali (2005: 5), “ Setiap siswa mempunyai keragaman dalam hal kecakapan maupun kepribadian.” This idea is supported by edge (2001:9), “ All learners are different. No two individuals have the same knowledge, or skills, or expectations…Learners are also influenced by their age and by their educational, social, and cultural backgrounds…” Since are different, selecting in a teaching method must be suited to their characteristics; their social status, sex, intelligence, personality, age, grade, maturity, interests, needs, and experience. In short, student’ different biological, intellectual, and psychological aspects must be the focus of attention concerned with the selection of teaching method.
The second factor is educational objectives. SyaifulBahriDjamarah and AswaanZain (2002:91) recommend, “ metode yang guru pilih harus sejalan dengan taraf kemampuan yang hendak diisi kedalam diri setiap anak didik. Artinya, metodelah yang harus tunduk kepada kehendak tujuan dan bukan sebaliknya.” On the other words, selecting a teaching method must fit the educational objectives. Different educational objectives determine what teaching method will be applied. For instance, the teaching grammer will not be suitable applied in teaching speaking. If the educational objective is to make certain responses automatically, the drill method will be most appropriate.
The third factor focuses on teaching situation. SyaifulBahriDjamarah and AswaanZain (2002:91) recommend, “ situasi kegiatan belajar mengajar yang guru ciptakan tidak selamanya sama dari hari kehari …Maka guru dalam hal ini tentu memilih metode mengajar yang sesuai dengan situasi yang diciptakan itu.” Thus, to conduct the teaching larning process, the teacher should vary the way she/he teaches. It has agoal of providing the students with different teaching situations. Once, the teacher presents the subject matter inside the classroom, but once she/he conducts the teaching learning process outside the classroom. However, the different teaching situations need different teaching methods.
The forth factor deals with teaching facility.SyaifulBahriDjamarah and AswaanZain (2002:91) offer a viewpoint, “ fasilitasmerupakanhal yang mempengaruhi pemilihan dan penentuan metode mengajar.” It can be stated that teaching facility influences on the selection of teaching method. Some schools have modern teaching facilities such as audio visual rooms, projectors, TV, radio, laboratory rooms, music rooms with pianos, or a well equipped library. A school with a well-equipped language laboratory may provide the students with good listening classroom, but a school with limited teaching methods must focus on available teaching facilities.
The fifth factor is teacher’s charactheristic and professionalism. H. Muhammad Ali (2005:5) explain,”setiap guru memiliki pola mengajar sendiri-sendiri. Pola mengajar ini tercermin dalam tingkah laku dalam melaksanakan pengajaran.” Edge (2001:11) states, “like learners, however, all teacher are different…” it can be stated that teachers have their own personalities and professionalisms. They have their own ways of doing things. Some may prefer certain teaching methods than others and apply them more often. Some prefer experiment method while others prefer lecture method. The different personalities and professionalism influence the selection of teaching method.
So, teaching method has an essential position in the teaching-learning process. Teaching method enables the teacher to transform the subject matter to the students easier. To achieve educational objectives, the teacher must know what appropriate teaching methods will be applied. Some factors, such as aducational objectives, student, teaching situation, teaching facility, and teacher’s characteristic and profesinalism, must be involved in selecting appropriate teaching methods.

D. The Role Play Method
1. The Meaning
Concerning with Role Play Method, Hisyam, Bermawy and Sekar (2002:92) states, “Role Play adalah suatu aktivitas pembelajaran yang terencana yang dirancang untuk mencapai tujuan-tujuan pendidikan yang spesifik berdasarkan dari pengalaman peran sehari-hari.”
In the other source, offers a viewpoint that ”Role playing, a derivative of a sociodrama, is a method for exploring the issues involved in complex social situations. It may be used for the training of professionals or in a classroom for the understanding of literature, history, and even science.”( AdamBlatner, 2002 in http://www.blatner.com/adam/pdntbk/rlplayedu.htm).
So, the role play method that the strategy or method like a drama will helps teacher to get the goals of teaching learning and help students to practice their lesson with enjoyable and attractive. Thus, their class will live and get spirit. Especially in the Seventh Grade Student Of SMPN 2 SOKO.

2. The ways
The first is Creating the role play, a) Brainstorm for yourself several issues to do with the unit. Choose one which you think would make an effective role play. Then choose six to eight roles for students to act out. These roles should be of people who will have different interests in the result of the discussion. For example, if the role play is to discuss whether the local chemical plant should clean up its land, then there will probably be people who will lose their jobs if the plant is forced to spend all its money on clean up, and there will probably be local business people who rely on the plant workers for income, and there might be neighbours of the chemical plant who will be, or have been, affected adversely by the plant, etc. b),Each role should be described clearly and succinctly. Your students should be able to read over the character descriptions in a few minutes. c) Choose a line of action for these role players to take. The line of action might be having a town council meeting to decide if the chemical plant should clean up its dump site now. Simplicity is the key. If your students need background information to be able to carry out the role play, this should already have been addressed in class.
The second, Preparing the students for roles, 1. There are two ways for preparing the students: a) One way is to give the students a week or so to prepare themselves for the role. This can be very effective, especially if you have a motivated and inspired class. You will be pleasantly surprised, usually, about the amount of preparation some of your students do for their roles. This gives students who are not strong in science a chance to be good in a different aspect of science. Not all your students will take on the opportunity, but, as I mentioned, you will probably be surprised by which students do, b) Another way is to give the selected students five minutes before the performance to read over their roles, and discuss their roles with the other members of the role play. While these students are discussing their roles (usually they will do this in the hall), you work with the rest of the class. Perhaps the rest of the class will set the stage. Perhaps the rest of the class will be learning some background information.2,Regardless of which way you prepare your students for their roles, you should pick who will perform which role. There are two reasons for you choosing : a) One reason is that you will have pedagogical reasons for choosing certain students. You might want to choose a child who likes to be in charge to be the chairperson of a meeting. You might want to choose a child who is antagonistic to another child to act as that child=s friend. You might want to choose a child who is struggling with a particular concept to act a role where the student must research that concept to prepare for the role, b) The other reason for you choosing is that you will have many different role plays throughout the term. You will want to balance the groups who act so that every student has a chance to act. The first role play will involve one or two of the more extroverted students, so that the more shy students will see how easy role plays are before they are forced to act.
The third is The action: a) Just before the role play begins, you will introduce the role play. You will explain what role playing is about (for the first role play the students engage in. This will be less important as your students become familiar with how role plays work.), b) You will make the problem explicit to your class. Whatever the line of action is, the actors must make a decision about an issue. The issue will be one where the right choice is not clear cut. In other words, your students should be facing a dilemma, c) You might or might not set a time limit for the action. If you are going to set a time limit, you will notify your students of the time limit in advance, and you will also remind them at the point where they must stop action and make their decision., d) You now step back and let the actors take over. Ideally, there would be one student who will be the chair of the role play – either officially (the chairperson of the town council meeting, or the person who must make the final decision, etc.) If you want one student to act as the chair of the role play as well as the playing a role, you will have to tell that student that this is part of his/her role. This student will then take charge of advising the players that they must stop action and make a decision., e) While your students act, you will make anecdotal records, or fill in checklists, or enjoy the role play.
The fourth is Whole class involvement; As I mentioned, I know of two ways in which the whole class can be involved, If the role play involves a town council meeting, you can have the whole class get involved in the discussion after the players have had their say. Then the whole class can cast their votes, as well as the role players. If you are going to conduct the role play so that all students can be involved in the discussion at the end, you will have to inform the whole class at the beginning that they will all be involved. Even if the role play is not a town council meeting, you might have the whole class involved at the end. For example, if a family had to make a decision on something, students could be asked to act as neighbours and to make suggestions to different family members. Then the family would make their decision.
A very different way of getting the whole class involved is to have the players make their decision. Then the whole class discusses whether they think the actor played the role as the particular character would have played it. For example, in the case of the chemical plant clean-up, is an employee of the plant, one who has just purchased a house, likely to vote that the plant will just have to clean up, even if it goes bankrupt? Students in the audience consider whether the character would have been likely to make that decision. Then those students who think an actor should have played the role differently will have an opport.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

A. Research Design
Research is the study of case that happened and try to compare with the own analyze and try to find the problem solving for that case.
The writer using qualitative approach in this research. The result of the problem in this research can be known if the writer was do the research and the result. Is not in number or in statistic but in phenomenon description.Its tries to describe the area of difficulty encountered by students in learning English and by the teachers to teach English. In this research, the data is collected naturally by observing the implementation of Role Play Method In Teaching English Language To The Seventh Grade Student Of SMPN 2 SOKO and by conducting an interview with the English teacher of the schooling. The researcher plays arole as an observer and an interview. Then, the data is analyzed and presented in a form of description.

B. Place And Time Of The Research
1. place of the research
this research takes place at SMPN 2 SOKO. The reasons for selecting the school are:
a. the school is reachable. It enables the researcher to conduct the research more effectively.
b. Role play method is applied in the school, particularly in teaching English

C. Source Of Data
1. Population
Population is the people who live in an area, a city, a country etc. (Hornby, 1995:897). The target population this study is all student of The Seventh Grade Student Of SMPN 2 SOKO.
2. Sample
Definition of sample is part of polulation reach that has the same character with population (Nana Sudjana and Ibrahim, 1989: 84-85). This sample of this research are 15 students of 30 students in there class. They are Seventh Grade Student Of SMPN 2 SOKO.
Suharsimiarikunto (1998:120) gives indication to take the sample, namely is the subject is less than 100. it is better all of them are used. But if the subject is bigger, can take about for 10-15% or 20-25% or more than it as the sample. Inthis research the researcher takes 50% students as the sample.

D. Data Collection
This research applies a qualitative approach. Syamsudin and Damaianti (2006:94: point out, “ bagi peneliti kualitatif fenomena dapat dimengerti maknanya secara baik apabila dilakukan melalui interaksi dengan subjek melalui wawancara mendalam. Selain itu, upaya dapat dilakukan melalui observasi pada latar tempat fenomena tersebut sedang berlangsung.” Based on the statement, this research applies interview and observation as the techniques for collecting data.
1. Observation
Observation is a kind of instrument that is almost researcher already has taken. Observation is done directly toward the objects of the study. The researcher participates in finding the data. As the result, the researcher can understand the condition and believes in the accuracy of the data.
Participant observation according to Bogdan (1972: 3) is observation, which interacts between researcher and subject. It needs long time to analyze observation. Rewriting the data is done regularly. In descriptive research, observation is done to collect data before the research begins. The data is collected by observasing completely what the target of research.
The researcher observes a large amount of students at the Seventh Grade Student of SMPN 2 SOKO as the subject of research. The focus of observation is for role method in the implementation of teaching English language.

2. Interview
Then, interview is a conversation with a purpose. The main purpose is to get information of people, events, activities, feelings, motivation etc. interview can also defined as an activity of gathering information that is conducted through conversation.
In this research, interview is conducted to acquire information about the implementation of role play method in teaching English lesson to the Seventh Grade Student of SMPN 2 SOKO.
E. Data Analysis
The stages of interactive analysis applied in this research are data reduction, data display, and conclusion. Each of the stages is presented in the following.
1. Data reduction
Data reduction is a stage of summarizing, classifying, and focusing on essential things. In this stage, the researcher needs to separate the accurate data from the in accurate ones. Through the data reduction, the research may focus on the data that will be analyzed.
2. Data display
Data display is a stage of organizing the data into patterns of relationship. The data display can make the collected data easier to be understood. In this stage, the researcher presents the narrative text.
3. Conclusion
In this stage, the researcher make a conclusion. The conclusion can be in a form of thick description. The conclusion is the answer of the research problems that have been formulated.

NAME: META CHAIRANI
NPM: 1106080057
Class: 2008 E

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In this globalization era, English is one of very important parts of human life. It is not only
as means of communication, but also as a media to relate to knowledge and technology. English is
the main language used is some fields, such as in the trade, diplomacy, cinematography, culture and
education in other countries all over the world. By using English as means of communication, we
make relationship with other countries closer. English is mass communication and it plays an
important role in the people’s life, either in written or oral form, such as in the books, magazines,
newspaper, radio and television.
In Indonesia, English as the first foreign language has on important role since the
language can be used to help not only students who went to enroll themselves into higher
educational institution but also the people who for better jobs and good position.
English is the first foreign language taught at school all over the country. In Indonesia
education system, it is taught at school subject at junior high school and senior high school.
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Teaching learning process in Indonesia is based on certain curriculum, which is
developed by the minister of education and culture, there have been several changes of curriculum
to head with the need of the society and to improve the quality of education. The first curriculum is
the 1954 curriculum named “ Kurikulum gaya lama”. The following curriculum was published in
1962 as the “Kurikulum gaya baru”. This curriculum the, was changed into the 1968 named
“Kurikulum gaya baru yang disempurnakan”, The 1975 is the curriculum which was
implemented in the period of 1975 until 1984, it was also replaced by the 1984 curriculum. The
next is curriculum1994 and finally the new competence, based curriculum substituted it.
2.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Based on the backgrounds of the study above the problems of this study is : which
textbook is appropriate in content and evaluation in order to fulfill the objective of competence
based curriculum?
3.PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study intended to analyses which and find out textbook which is appropriate in
content and in evaluation in order to fulfill the objective of competence based curriculum.
4.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of study is hoped to be give a contribution to the students and the teacher to
come to recognize the book that are appropriate with CBC, especially between the textbook that
are published by Penerbit Erlangga and PT. Intan pariwara. The result of the study is also hoped to
be able to used as a reference by the researcher who wants to conduct a similar research.
5.SCOPE AND LIMITATION
Even there so many books for the first of senior high school that are based on “ CBC ”,
but the written just focuses on the two textbook published by Penerbit Erlangga and PT. Intan
1
Pariwara to be compared as the object of research and the written limits on the content and
evaluation of the two textbook.
6.DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS
To avoid misunderstanding , the key term of this study are as follows :
1.ANALYSIS: A method by which a thing is separated into
parts, and those parts are give rigorous logical, detailed
scrutiny, resulting. In a consistent an relatively complete
account (William:20)
2.CBC: CBC is a group of schemes, competence regulation,
and learning out comes which must be obtained by students,
assessment, teaching, and empower educational resource in
developing school curriculum. ( Nurhadi, 2003 :80 ).
3.BAHASA INGGRIS I: English textbook for the first
year of senior high school published by PT. Intan Pariwara.
4.HEADLIGHT: English textbook for the first year of
senior high school published by Penerbit Erlangga.
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CHAPTER II
2.1.1 THE ROLE OF TEXTBOOK
Instructional materials in the form of the textbook are very important for both teacher
and learner. In making teaching preparation and conducting the teaching for example, teacher need
textbook. In addition, without textbook, teacher will have difficulties in constructing written
evaluation. While for the learner, textbook also plays an important role. The learner who do not
have textbook with them during the teaching learning activities will not be able to follow the lesson
well. In the other word, lack of textbook in teaching and activities can create the less success of
teaching.
Based on the important role of textbook learning activity, good textbook should be
selected in order to support the success of teaching and learning but it teacher used textbook
without selecting the quality, it is possible that teaching will deviate from the objective.
2.1.2 THE CRITERIA OF A GOOD TEXTBOOK
There are many things in choosing the textbook for an English program Romero
(1970:27) states that the books should be attractive, using picture and has interesting material.
Attractive means that all presentations should suggest that the material is easy to learn.
Suparno ( 2002:72 ) states : the content of book should include the material that must
be known by the learner and done in each level of education. Textbook also hoped to make an
education that includes the potential thing from the society, because it is able to make good
education for the learners.
2.2 THE STANDART COMPETENCE OF ENGLISH LESSON.
CBC is given as a response from the 1999 GBHN, which released to be reactions or
correction of the errors and problem found in the implementation of the previous curriculum.
1
The standard competence of English lesson is competence that must be achieved by the
students as a result of learning English.
There are three standard competences in English lesson :
●Communication both oral and written language by using language variation in the form of
narrative, report, news item, etc.
●Communicate both oral and written language by using language variation in the form of
descriptive, anecdote and expository paragraph.
●Communicate both oral and written language by using language variation in the form of
explanation, discussion, commentary and review.
The function English language education is to develop the learners in all educational aspects such
as : personality, science, technology, arts, and the capability of international communication.
2.2.1 THE UNDERSTANDING OF LANGUAGE
Basically language is a means to express idea, mind and feeling. English is said to be the
first foreign language in Indonesia, which is considered to be an important means of observing and
developing knowledge, technology, culture, arts and establishing good relation with other nations.
2.2.2 FUNCTION OF TEACHING ENGLISH
Teaching English lesson is able to develop self development in science, technology, art
and culture. As a result, they can develop into citizens who are intellectual, skilled of Indonesian
personality, and ready to participate in national development.
2.2.3 OBJECTIVES OF ENGLISH LESSON
English lesson has the objective as follows :
* Communication in English language.
* The understanding of English lesson as a system.
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* The cultural understanding.
2.2.4 SCOPE OF ENGLISH LESSON
It covers four language skills, include, speaking, listening , writing and develop on the
basis of theme. Other language components such as grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation spelling
can be through to support the development of the four language skills.
2.3 THE PROGRAM INTRUCSIONAL
2.3.1 THE COMPETENCE BASED CURRICULUM
Pedagogues should not claim that a new minister is identically with a new curriculum.
The changes is education are not new things, even they have got to occur, due to a change is a
process which describes what is happening at that time.
GBHN 1999 – 2003 recommend to review educational system, including curriculum.
Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) as a new paradigm is enforced to prepare
graduates to master some competence for their lives.
So, students becomes passive in the class because they could not think and share their
ideas to their teacher and friends because the teacher did not give chance to them to speak up by
them selves and system of assessment only focus on students test result, and 2004 curriculum the
teacher roles as facilitator it means that CBC has to be given to the student in order to develop their
creativity after the teacher gives the material. So, CBC and 1994 curriculum is different it can be
seen not only fro and content but also from the way in presenting the material.
2.3.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRST CLASS
There are four skills in English language skills, and they have their own objectives, such
as : listening, speaking, reading and writing.
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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
This study is designed to obtain the answer whether the two textbook are relevant to the
new curriculum and meet the requirements of goods instructional materials in terms of the contents
and evaluations.
3.2 SUBJECT OF THE STUDY
The subject of this study are all materials of the SMU English textbook for the first year
published by Penerbit Erlangga and PT. Intan Pariwara, the purpose of using the books is to obtain
the detailed information from the two textbooks that are related to the competence based
curriculum.
3.3 DATA COLLECTION
The data of this are the document materials of the SMU English textbook for the first
year published by Penerbit Erlangga and PT. Intan Pariwara. Thus, the data are documents in the
form of the textbooks. The two documents used in this study are SMU English textbooks, i.e :
1.Penerbit Erlangga, Headlight, Emilia I. Lukman, M.pd, et al.
2.PT.Intan Pariwara, Bahasa Inggris kelas I SMU, Adreas Heri Kristomo, et al.
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS
The criteria to analyze the data are as follows :
a.Comparing Actional Competences ( kompetensi tindak bahasa) covered by the two
textbooks, namely : reading, writing, listening and speaking.
b.The comparison of presented materials of two textbooks for the actional competences, namely :
1
reading, writing, listening and speaking.
c.The comparison of types of task and evaluation of the two textbooks.
3.4.1 TECHNIQUE OF THE DATA ANALYSIS
1.Make a checklist of the actionable competences covered by the two textbooks, namely :
reading, writing, listening and speaking.
2.Make a checklist of presented materials of the two textbooks for the actionable competences,
namely : reading, writing, listening and speaking.
3.Make a checklist of types of task and evaluation of the two textbooks.
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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Based on the research finding, the researcher found that the first concept of English lesson
for the first year of senior high school that was the principle of English lesson such as grammar,
vocabulary, speaking and pronunciation must be presented based on the situation of the target’s culture
and student’s culture.
The second concept was about the principle of English lesson that was aimed to support the
mastery and the development of actional competences for the students. Both of textbooks presented all
actional competences to support the student’s mastery and develop their ability in understanding English
language.
The actional competences could not be separated one and each other. So,in every unit of
discussion all action competences should be available, that was the fourth concept. Actually both of
textbooks use this rule, but the way to present the material was different.
In “Headlight” each actional competences was presented systematically in every unit, while
in “BHS. Inggris I” There are subunits in each unit, and each subunits not always involve all the actional
competence.
The last concept was the students must be involved in teaching and learning process that are
aimed to develop student’s ability all educational aspect, arouse the student’s motivation to develop
their personality, and develop the student’s ability to communicative each other. Both of textbooks
already use this concept.
In conclusion, both of textbooks already good, but only “BHS. Inggris I“ Was appropriate
in content and evaluation to fulfill the objective of competence based curriculum.
5.2 SUGGESTION
1.In selecting the English textbooks, the teacher and the students is hoped to select the textbooks
1
base on the concept of English lesson, because it can help competence and ability in Mastering
the actional competence and develop their ability in understanding the English language.
2.Because the scope of the study is limited to some SMU English textbooks for the first year, It is
hoped the result of the study will help everyone who want to conduct further similar studies
beyond to the study, such as :
a.Helping the students to know procedure of analyzing of textbook and discussing the data.
b.By reading suggestion provided in the study, students who want to a conduct a literature
study will find a new idea about the title of the study.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Kristomo, Andreas Heri. 2003. Bahasa Inggris. Klaten. PT. Intan Pariwara
Lukman, Emilia I, M.Pd. 2003. Haedlight. Jakarta. Penerbit Erlangga
Mulyasa. E, Dr. M.Pd. 2003. Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi Konsep, Karakteristik, Dan
Implementasi. Bandung. PT. Remaja Kosdakarya.

Nama : Bella Dona Astuti
Class : 2008 E

INVITING THE STUDENTS TO RESPON INFORMATION ACCURATELY BY USING BINGO GAMES
IN THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL NUMBER 10 TUBAN

( REVISION )

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1. 1 Background of the study
In Indonesia, English has been chosen as the first foreign language to be taught as compulsory subject from the first year of junior high school up to the first year of college ( Saleh, 1997:2 ). There are four components of language to be taught to junior high school students, they are structure or grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary, and spelling. Vocabulary is one components that to be learned and mastered, but some students still face problem in learning English cardinal number ( Jaya, 2006 : in ( http://www.essay.se/essay/8e4e235ac8).
There are many languages in the world with many varieties in their form and use. Besides of them, English is the most widely used. More people use English in many activities in the world of interaction and communication and also for Indonesian people. Moreover, to make a good communication, people need mastery the four skills those are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Mastery the skills are not easy because the rules of English are different from these of Indonesian language.
Besides, the students will learn the language aspects; there are pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary to support their language skills. Mastery vocabulary is one of the most important things to make our communication be fluent and obstruct. Krenzke (2001:209) states “when people know a lot of words, it’s easier to say exactly what we want to say”. It means that when people mastery much of words or vocabulary especially cardinal number, we can speak and make the communication feels good.
Vocabulary is one of the aspects of language. Vocabulary requires in listening and speaking skills, and also for reading and writing. If the students have very limited vocabulary especially cardinal number, they will find some difficulties in communications and also for reading and other skills if they are lack of vocabulary. The lack of vocabulary is a real problem. Suyanto (2007:47) states that teaching vocabulary is better one if the materials are used still in children world contexts in order to make easier and practice for communicate. Therefore, teacher has leading role to help their students to develop their students’ ability in mastering vocabulary especially for Junior High School.
To teach cardinal number to the students of Junior High School is really important to use media, once of them is Games. Game is one of the alternative media can be used by the teacher in teaching vocabulary especially here in teaching cardinal number. According to Sadiman, Raharajo, and Haryono (2005:75) game is competition among the players that interact each other by following rules to achieve certain purposes too in relation to it. Cezzanne (1895 point out) that game is structured or semi structured activity, usually under taken for enjoyment and sometimes also used as an education tool. In this study the writer uses Bingo game in teaching cardinal number to the seventh grade students at Junior High School Number 10 Tuban.
Bingo Games is of the alter one of the later stages of the process of covering a language point, usually in conjunction with a number of other activities according to ( Huntley, 2009 : in http://www.tefl.net/esl-articles/bingo.htm). With directions language, the minimum requirement for the bingo game to work would be knowledge of basic directions, including relevant prepositions especially in teaching cardinal number to the seventh grades students Junior High School number 10Tuban.
Therefore, this research is attempting to find out whether it is effective or not to teach cardinal number using Bingo game to the students, especially the seventh grade students of Junior High School number 10 Tuban.

1.2. Statements of the problem
How is the effectiveness of Bingo is teaching cardinal number?

1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to know the effectiveness of Bingo is teaching cardinal number to inviting the students to respon information accurately.

1.4 Scope and limitation
The problem in this study is limited on teaching cardinal number between 1 – 100 by using Bingo game to the seventh grade students of Junior High School number 10 Tuban.

1.5 Significance of the Study
The writer expects that the result of this thesis will useful for the students, teachers of English, other researchers and also for the writer herself.
1) To the Students:
This study will be useful as information input for language to improve their vocabulary knowledge especially cardinal number. It can motivate to the students in learning cardinal number on applying on games (Bingo) and also to give them more interest to learn new words in English.
2) To the Teachers of English:
This study will guide teachers of English in teaching cardinal number and they can apply this game in their classroom and also they can compare and improve or add their previous teaching techniques.
3) To Other Researchers:
This study can be the source of information for other researchers who are also investigating the teaching method of English vocabulary especially for cardinal number to the students.
4) To the Writer herself:
This study will give more experience to the writer as teacher of English and it will enlarge knowledge in doing research on applying the Bingo game in teaching cardinal number to the students.

1.6 Definition of key term
To give some perception to some words used in this study, the writer needs to define some key terms, which are as follows :
1. Teaching
Teaching is process of transformation or giving knowledge from a teacher to the learners. According to Harmer ( 2003 : 107 ), “ teaching is about transmission of knowledge from teacher to students “.
2. Cardinal number
Cardinal number is a numbers that say how many of something there are, such as one, two, three, four, five.
3. Game
Game refers to strategy that is implemented by teacher in making their presentation better and their teaching and learning activities more interesting.
4. Bingo
Bingo is the game which played in this study.
5. Vocabulary
Vocabulary means is one of the linguistics aspects of language which plays an important role not only in comprehending but also in communication and it face in students daily activity appropriate in their level (Seventh grade students) with themes “things in the classroom at schools”.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 The Concept of Teaching
According to Saleh (1997:16), teaching is a profession conducted by using a combination of art, science, and skill. It is an art because it relies on the teacher’s creative provision of the best possible learning environment and activities for his/her students. It is a science since it is a system, an ordered set of ideas and methods used by the teachers in doing their main jobs: planning a lesson, implementing the plan in the classroom and evaluating the outcome of the activities. It is a skill because it demands the ability attained from relevant theories and practice to assist students expertly in learning so that they are able to again linguistic and communicative competence in the target language. While Brown (1994) states teaching is showing or helping some one to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand.
Based on the definition above, the writer can conclude that the meaning of teaching is a process of a transferring knowledge from someone to another one in order to make people know or understand about something. For example, in this case teacher will be transfer about cardinal number by using Bingo method to his students.

2.2 Types of Vocabulary
According to Saleh (1997:60), vocabulary is divided into two principal categories: (1) Concrete words, whose meaning can be perceived through one or more of the five senses, such as “skirt” and “hat”, (2) Abstract words, the meaning of which cannot generally be grasped by virtue of the five senses, such as “life” and “enjoy”. According to Wallance (1982:18), vocabulary can be divided into two major categories, namely function word and content words. Function words have little or no meaning by themselves, for example “to”, “for”, “by” (preposition), and content words are noun, verb, adjectives, and adverb, for example “Happy”, “Happily”.
In additional, Cheek et al (1989:113) as cited in Renata (1998:5) states that there are types of vocabulary that may be encountered by readers in their reading:
1) General vocabulary : refers to the words that comprise the major portion of one’s vocabulary used in everyday communication, such as table, house and chair.
2) Specialized vocabulary : refers to the words with multiple meanings that change from one content area to another, such as mass, root, and rise.
3) Technical vocabulary : refers to the words that are essential for the understanding of specific content area. These words relate to only one content area and are crucial for understanding of its concepts, such as gene (science) and embargo (social studies).In this study, the writer focused on general vocabulary because according to Suyanto (2007:47) states that teaching vocabulary is better one if the materials are used still in children world contexts in order to make them easier in practice for communication. Based on the statements, the writer assumes that study about the word that used in everyday communication plays an important role to make the communication be fluently.
4) Teaching vocabulary : there are several aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teaching vocabulary. The list below is based on the work of Gairns and Redman (1986):
• Boundaries between conceptual meaning: knowing not only what lexis refers to, but also where the boundaries are that separate it from words of related meaning (e.g. cup, mug, bowl).
• Polysemy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form with several but closely related meanings (head: of a person, of a pin, of an organisation).

• Homonymy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form which has several meanings which are NOT closely related ( e.g. a file: used to put papers in or a tool).
• Homophyny:understanding words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings (e.g. flour, flower).
• Synonymy: distinguishing between the different shades of meaning that synonymous words have (e.g. extend, increase, expand).
• Affective meaning: distinguishing between the attitudinal and emotional factors (denotation and connotation), which depend on the speakers attitude or the situation. Socio-cultural associations of lexical items is another important factor.
• Style, register, dialect: Being able to distinguish between different levels of formality, the effect of different contexts and topics, as well as differences in geographical variation.
• Translation: awareness of certain differences and similarities between the native and the foreign language (e.g. false cognates).
• Chunks of language: multi-word verbs, idioms, strong and weak collocations, lexical phrases.
• Grammar of vocabulary: learning the rules that enable students to build up different forms of the word or even different words from that word (e.g. sleep, slept, sleeping; able, unable; disability).
• Pronunciation: ability to recognise and reproduce items in speech.

The implication of the aspects just mentioned in teaching is that the goals of vocabulary teaching must be more than simply covering a certain number of words on a word list. We must use teaching techniques that can help realise this global concept of what it means to know a lexical item. And we must also go beyond that, giving learner opportunities to use the items learnt and also helping them to use effective written storage systems.

2.3 Game
2.3.1 The concept of Game
Saleh (1997:57) states that a game is a kind of play that can be used to practice certain language features at certain phrases in learning process in order to develop communication skills.
According to Longman (1992:153), the word game (in language teaching) means an organization activity that usually has the following properties:

a. A particular task or objective.
b. A set of ruler.
c. Competition between players.
d. Communication between players by spoken or written language

According to Ersoz (2000:1), games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation. Uberman (1998:20) states that many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time filling activities but have a great educational value. Lee (1979:2) holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct format. In addition, Hornby (1987:353) states that games mean a form of play or sport especially with rules.

Games encourage, entertain, teach and promote fluency. If no for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems that at times see overwhelming (Uberman, 1998:20). In conclusion, games help encourage and participants to sustain their interest in English. The writer realized that games motivated the students to acquire knowledge, vocabulary, grammars, and the like.

2.3.2 The Importance of Game
Language learning is not easy work. Effort and patience are required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. According to Wright, et al, (1984:1), games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work. Learning a new language can be a hard and need long journey. Agoestyowati (2008:xiii) states, the use of games in learning environment will not only change the dynamic of class, but it will also make easier for students and help the brain to learn more effectively.
It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games. Su Kim (1995:35) clarifies many advantages of using games in classroom:
1) Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of language class.
2) They are motivating and challenging.
3) Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning.
4) Games provide language practice in the various skills-speaking, writing, listening and reading.
5) They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6) They create a meaningful context for language use.
Furthermore, Lewis (in Mei and Yu-Jing, 2000:4) states that games are fun and children like to play them. In additional, Lengeling and Malarcher (1997:42) mention general benefit of games:

Affective:
– Games can encourage creative and spontaneous use of language
– Games can promotes communicative competence
– Games can motivates and fun for students

Cognitive:
– Games allow students to focuses on grammar communicatively

Class Dynamics:
– Games make teacher acts only as facilitator
– Games builds class cohesion
– Games promotes healthy competition

Adaptability:
– Games is easily adjusted for age, level, and interest
– Games as utilizes all four skills

Based on the views above, a game allows students to: work co-operatively, learn form others, learn from mistakes, and allow people to have fun.

2.4 BINGO
2.4.1 The meaning of bingo
Bingo is a game often played with a large number of people in halls or other venues. People are either given or purchase cards of 5 X 5 grids that have 25 total numbers on them (http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-bingo.htm ).

2.4.2 The History of Bingo
In the U.S., bingo was originally called “beano”. It was a country fair game where a dealer would select numbered discs from a cigar box and players would mark their cards with beans. They yelled “beano” if they won.
The game’s history can be traced back to 1530, to an Italian lottery called “Lo Giuoco del Lotto D’Italia,” which is still played every Saturday in Italy. From Italy the game was introduced to France in the late 1770s, where it was called “Le Lotto”, a game played among wealthy Frenchmen. The Germans also played a version of the game in the 1800s, but they used it as a child’s game to help students learn math, spelling and history.
When the game reached North America in 1929, it became known as “beano”. It was first played at a carnival near Atlanta, Georgia. New York toy salesman Edwin S. Lowe renamed it “bingo” after he overheard someone accidentally yell “bingo” instead of “beano”. He hired a Columbia University math professor, Carl Leffler, to help him increase the number of combinations in bingo cards. By 1930, Leffler had invented 6,000 different bingo cards. [It is said that Leffler then went insane.
A Catholic priest from Pennsylvania approached Lowe about using bingo as a means of raising church funds. When bingo started being played in churches it became increasingly popular. By 1934, an estimated 10,000 bingo games were played weekly, and today more than $90 million dollars are spent on bingo each week in North Americaalone.
(http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbingo.htm)

2.4.3 The Example bingo’s instrument

B I N G O
9 24 50 65 88
17 38 48 79 90
13 29 42 76 84
5 30 59 63 85
2 31 53 66 97

B : 1 – 20
I : 21 – 40
N : 41 – 60
G : 61 – 80
O : 81 – 100

2.4.4 The way to play BINGO
– Students have 1 card with different number
– The teacher shake a number that she bring
– The teacher mention the number
– The students fill in the number with small stine or another
– If the number is complete ( diagonal, vertikal, or diagonal ), the student must say “ BINGO”
– The teacher check the student’s BINGO card

BAB III
RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 The Design of Reseach
The writer using the qualitative method to analysis. It is used for reseaching where human is performed as subject. Wolfgang Donsbach says : Qualitative is always descriptive, so the result of analysis in the form of description, not in the form of nember. Every event is the key to open and understand something. Qualitative methodology includes a variety and diversity of methods, procedures, and reseach design. All kinds of qualitative methods have in common that their main reseach aim is deeper understanding of the reseach object. Qualitative methods do not measure them objectively but interact with them, insofar as method is not a neutral tool in order to gain knowledge about reseached subjects but is part of the socisl reality investigated ( 2008 : 15 ). In this study, the writer use experimental reseach.

3.1.1 Experimental Reseach
Experimental Reseach is is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which the researcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and measures any change in other variables.
Experimental Research is often used where:
1. There is time priority in a causal relationship (cause precedes effect)
2. There is consistency in a causal relationship (a cause will always lead to the same effect)
3. The magnitude of the correlation is great.
A research methodology used to establish cause-and-effect relationships between the independent and dependent variables by means of manipulation of variables, control and randomisation. A true experiment involves the random allocation of participants to experimental and control groups, manipulation of the independent variable, and the introduction of a control group (for comparison purposes). Participants are assessed before and after the manipulation of the independent variable in order to assess its effect on the dependent variable (the outcome).
3.2 The process of the reseach

1. Planning : the writer plans about the material that will writer does.

2. Action : the writer does the experiment such as the BINGO game.

3. Observation : the writer gets observation with the instruments.

4. Reflection : the writer has a resume of the reseach.

3.3 Setting of the reseach
3.3.1 Location
The location of the reseach is in the Junior High School Number 10 Tuban

3.3.2 Place
The place of the reseach is in the seventh grade students of Junior High School Number 10 Tuban

3.4 Subject of the study
The subject of this study are 40 students.

3.4 Instruments of the Study
The use instruments helped the reseach to get the valid data. Arikunto (2002 : 126) claimed “ Instrument is a means in reseach that use a method”. And While Hornby stated that “ Instrument is a tool or device used for a particular task, especially for delicate or scientific work ( 2000 : 1342 ).
From the statements above, those can be concluded that to get necessary data, an instrument is needed. So, in this study, the writer use instruments such as :
1. Observation check – list
2. Questioner sheet
3. Test

3.4.1 Observation Check – List
An observation checklist is a list of things that an observer is going to look at when observing a class. This list may have been prepared by the observer or the teacher or both. Observation checklists not only give an observer a structure and framework for an observation but also serve as a contract of understanding with the teacher, who may as a result be more comfortable, and will get specific feedback on aspects of the class.
3.4.2 Questioner Sheet
Questioner sheet is a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge.
3.4.3 Test
Test is a procedure for critical evaluation; a means of determining the presence, quality, or truth of something

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Mettetal,Gwyn. 2001.The What, Why and How of Experimental Reseach Vol.2, Number 1.

( http://www.essay.se/essay/8e4e235ac8 ),May 28, 2011

( http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-bingo.htm ), May 28, 2011

( http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blbingo.htm ), May 30, 2011

( http://www.tefl.net/esl-articles/bingo.htm )

NAME:ENDRIX CANDRA WINATA
NPM :1106080094

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of The Study
As social beings, we like telling people about things that happen to us and we like hearing of things that happen to other people. We go to the movie because we are eager to see and to hear things happening. We like too, listening to the stories, the music, and the opinions of other on what is happening. The radio, movies and televisions allow ways of increasing our experience of going thing in our imagination that we might never have a chance to do.
From the description above, it is not wrong that the writer goes into the literature’s job. Literature of the people is principle element of its culture. It contains the record of the people value, their thought, their problems and their conflict. In short, their whole way of life. Literature may fairly be regarded as the chief art of mankind. Kennedy’s description in An Introduction to The Study of Literature, literature as a vocal record of what men have seen in life, what they have experienced of it, what they have thought and felt about those aspects of it which have the most immediate and enduring interest for all of us (1965 : 10).
The literature may be classified into two groups. The first group is “LITERATURE OF KNOWLEDGE OR INFORMATIVE LITERATURE”. The function of this kind of literature is to present information, to teach knowledge, to offer knowledge, for example: history book, travel brochures, magazine and school text books.

The second group is “LITERATURE OF POWER OR IMAGINATIVE LITERATURE “. The function of imaginative literature is to entertain, to move, to arouse thought and feeling, for example: novels, short stories, poems, and drama.
In this study the writer is going to focus on the second group of literature “imaginative literature or literature of power”. He is interested in novel, because it is interesting literary work. A novel is like a short story. It is longer, both are prose fiction, deals with truths, problems and conflict, aim to entertain and to inform and in both element of structure are found: plot, characterization, situation, and theme. A short story focuses on one incident in time. A novel has far more range. It may deal with a deal with a life time, a number of incident. A novel may have many characters, some of whom may never even come into contact with other, but who are nevertheless, somehow involved with the others.
The writer is interested in analyzing the main character’s conflicts (Lemuel Gulliver) in the novel “Gulliver’s Travels” written by Jonathan Swift. The writer is interested analyzing the conflict because is a part of life and can be learned to face the same problems in life.

1.2 Statement of The Problem
The writer tries to discuss about the problems which happen to the main character, and how he solves them.
Before analyzing the novel, there are several problems that come from the writer’s mind. They can be formulated as follow:
1. What conflicts are found in the main character of “Gulliver’s Travels”?
2. What is the most dominant conflict in the main character of “Gulliver’s Travels”?
3. What is the resolution on conflict “Gulliver’s Travels”?

1.3 Purpose of The Study
Related to what has been statement above, the goal of the study is to answer the problems of the study. They are:
1. To describe the conflict of main character in the “Gulliver’s Travels”.
2. To find out the most dominant conflict of main character in the “Gulliver’s Travels”.
3. To describe the resolution of the conflicts in the “Gulliver’s Travels”.

1.4 Scope and Limitation
This study has scope and limitation. The writer only analyze on one novel which has title “Gulliver’s Travels”. Furthermore, the writer of the study limits his study by focusing on one aspect of the novel. That is conflict especially of the main character’s conflict in “Gulliver’s Travels”.

1.5 Significant of The Study
The writer hopes this study has some significances, especially for English department students. Firstly, it is hoped that this study will encourage the student to study more about literature. Secondly, this study gives some motivations to the students in order to study novel as one of literary work. The most important things, the writer also hopes that this study will help the readers especially the English department students to get more experience from the conflicts that happen in “Gulliver’s Travels”

1.6 Definition of The Key Terms
There are some important terms in this study. Therefore, it is necessary for writer to give the definition of the key terms used in the title.
1. Literature
Literature is simply another way we can experience the world around us through our imagination.
2. Analysis
The study of something by examining it’s part
3. Novel
Novel is a book of long narrative in literary prose.
4. Conflict
Conflict is defined as the struggle which grows out of interplay of two opposing forces in plot, which provides the elements of interest and suspense in any form of fiction
5. Character
Characters are the person presented in a dramatic or narrative works
6. Main character
Main character is prominent figure who become focus of the story
7. Resolution
Resolution the rounding -off on action, the conclusion one way or the other of the conflict 
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OR RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Literature
Long (1945:8) explains that literature is the expression of life in the world of truth and beauty; it is the writer’s record of people’s spirit of this thought, emotion, and expression. It is history of human soul. Thus, the art of literature is the expression of life in the world that appeal to the writer’s sense of beauty.
Like any other forms of art, literature is an artistic expression of life and truth. In painting the expression takes the form of lines and colors, in literature they made words and sounds. Literature enables the readers to feel comfortable and see the reflection of real life. So, the readers can relieve their own grief, uncertainty, and other problems in their hearts. Literature can also broaden understanding of life since literature contains values about life.

2.2 Fiction
In abroad sense, fiction is imaginative literature. Fiction tells about an author’s experiences, feeling, and observes. It is true that in some fiction, the author combine between factual information with his or her imagination.
2.2.1 The Elements of Fiction
The elements of fiction are something an author should concern with to produce good works. Those elements are:

2.2.1.1 Plot
Plot is the structure of action in dramatic or narrative work. It is designed to achieve particular emotional and artistic effects. It also means that exhibit their moral and disposition qualities. Plot and character are depending on each other. In a story, we know two kinds of plot, close plot and open plot. A close plot is a plot in which the author resolves or concludes the story for the reader. An open plot is a plot that ends of the climax, and the reader is left to decide what he thinks the resolution of outcome of the story.

2.2.1.2 Setting of Situation
Setting is very important in a story. It is what gives background to the story. It gives the reader information where the story is taking place.
In setting or situation, we find two kinds of elements:
1. Place
Where the story taking place. This can be- regional by a certain region. For example, “Ande-Ande Lumut”. This can be neutral. It can also be where the story explains bout something happening generally such as, “Ratapan Anak Tiri”, and this can be spiritual. It can also be where the story concerns religion dogma, moral or etnicts. A story about prophets, for example “Malin Kundang”.

2. Time
When the time is taking place (season, year, minutes, hour, day, month, week, etc). it tell us something about the story as detailed as possible, such as, about lighting, sound, the interior of a room, scenery, clothes, etc.

2.2.1.3 Character
Character is divided into two general categories. First, a simple or flat character is called flat because the reader sees only one side of the character. It isles representation of human personality then the embodiment of the single attitude or obsession in a character. The second is complex or round characters. The complex character is obviously more lifelike than the simple, because in life people in life people are not simply embodiments of single attitude.

2.2.1.4 Characterization
Characterization is the way the author writes the character in order to make them life. It is the method in performing characters in a story. In fiction it is depicting of clear images of a person. It really does not matter who or what the character as long as it can be identified. So, the author must choose not only what kind of character he will present, but also by what methods he will present them. There are numbers of methods available to the author, with its advantages and disadvantages. In doing this, people may consider numerous ways that a writer contributes to the reader’s understanding of a character, among them motivation, consistency, and individuality.

2.2.1.5 Theme
Theme is the underlying or central idea that the author is presenting. It is the controlling idea dominating the story. It has been used as a synonym for tropic and subject. Most stories have a theme, sometime we might call “The Message” or “The Moral” of the story. The theme may come from the whole story as the reader lives through it, and because each of us is different as we experience the story, each of us my draw from it a different theme, a different meaning.

2.2.1.6 Point of View
Point of view is a term of using criticism of prose fiction to design the position form, which the story is told. How the readers think about everything relating to the story, how they express, and comment the content of the story are called as point of view. The two fundamental points of view are the first person narration and the third person narration.
First person: The first person point of view is easily recognizable by the current use of “I” the voice since of a character, not the author. It is important to recognize the distinction between authors who write stories and characters that tell them.
Third person: The third person point of view is handled in one of two ways, he omniscient (all knowing) or limited narrator. In the omniscient from God like narrator describes all the thoughts and feelings of the character and tell us what they said and why. Naturally the actual words of the characters may be quoted, but third person pronouns or proper nouns appear

2.2.1.7 Conflict
The word conflict is taken from Latin word ” contra” meaning to strike. So, conflict is an art of tricking together group. Conflicts is the strain in a made up story or drama by which it is the opposition of two forces (Sujiman, 1984:57)
In a story, we find three categories of dramatic conflict. They are:
1. The physical or elemental conflict
This conflict between man and nature. In such a story we may go through the struggles of a man climbing a mountain.
2. Social conflict
Social conflict is man in conflict against another. For example: two women seeking to marry the same man.
3. The psychological conflict
The psychological conflict is man struggling against himself, his conscience, his guilt, or simply trying to decide that he is going to do. In such a story we may see, an honest but poor bank employee fighting the temptation to steal from his bank in a story.

2.3 The biography of Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish[1] satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric who became Dean of St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin. He is remembered for works such as Gulliver’s Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, Drapier’s Letters, The Battle of the Books, An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity, and A Tale of a Tub. Swift is probably the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known for his poetry. Swift originally published all of his works under pseudonyms—such as Lemuel Gulliver, Isaac Bickerstaff, M.B. Drapier—or anonymously. He is also known for being a master of two styles of satire: the Horatian and Juvenalian styles.
Youth

Jonathan Swift was born at No. 7, Hoey’s Court, Dublin, and was the second child and only son of Jonathan Swift (a second cousin of John Dryden) and wife Abigail Erick (or Herrick), paternal grandson of Thomas Swift and wife Elizabeth Dryden, daughter of Nicholas Dryden (brother of Sir Erasmus Dryden, 1st Baronet Dryden) and wife Mary Emyley. His father was Irish born and his mother was the sister of the vicar of Frisby-on-the-Wreake, England. Swift arrived seven months after his father’s untimely death. Most of the facts of Swift’s early life are obscure, confused and sometimes contradictory. It is widely believed that his mother returned to England when Jonathan was still very young, then leaving him to be raised by his father’s family. His uncle Godwin took primary responsibility for the young Jonathan, sending him with one of his cousins to Kilkenny College (also attended by the philosopher George Berkeley). In 1682 he attended Dublin University (Trinity College, Dublin), receiving his B.A. in 1686. Swift was studying for his Master’s degree when political troubles in Ireland surrounding the Glorious Revolution forced him to leave for England in 1688, where his mother helped him get a position as secretary and personal assistant of Sir William Temple at Moor Park, Farnham. Temple was an English diplomat who, having arranged the Triple Alliance of 1668, retired from public service to his country estate to tend his gardens and write his memoirs. Gaining the confidence of his employer, Swift “was often trusted with matters of great importance.”[cite this quote] Within three years of their acquaintance, Temple had introduced his secretary to William III, and sent him to London to urge the King to consent to a bill for triennial Parliaments. When Swift took up his residence at Moor Park, he met Esther Johnson, then eight years old, the fatherless daughter of one of the household servants. Swift acted as her tutor and mentor, giving her the nickname “Stella”, and the two maintained a close but ambiguous relationship for the rest of Esther’s life.Swift left Temple in 1690 for Ireland because of his health, but returned to Moor Park the following year. The illness, fits of vertigo or giddiness—now known to be Ménière’s disease—would continue to plague Swift throughout his life. During this second stay with Temple, Swift received his M.A. from Hertford College, Oxford in 1692. Then, apparently despairing of gaining a better position through Temple’s patronage, Swift left Moor Park to become an ordained priest in the Established Church of Ireland and in 1694 he was appointed to the prebend of Kilroot in the Diocese of Connor, with his parish located at Kilroot, near Carrickfergus in County Antrim. Swift appears to have been miserable in his new position, being isolated in a small, remote community far from the centres of power and influence. While at Kilroot, however, Swift may well have become romantically involved with Jane Waring. A letter from him survives, offering to remain if she would marry him and promising to leave and never return to Ireland if she refused. She presumably refused, because Swift left his post and returned to England and Temple’s service at Moor Park in 1696, and he remained there until Temple’s death. There he was employed in helping to prepare Temple’s memoirs and correspondence for publication. During this time Swift wrote The Battle of the Books, a satire responding to critics of Temple’s Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning (1690). Battle was however not published until 1704. On 27 January 1699 Temple died. Swift stayed on briefly in England to complete the editing of Temple’s memoirs, and perhaps in the hope that recognition of his work might earn him a suitable position in England. However, Swift’s work made enemies of some of Temple’s family and friends who objected to indiscretions included in the memoirs. His next move was to approach King William directly, based on his imagined connection through Temple and a belief that he had been promised a position. This failed so miserably that he accepted the lesser post of secretary and chaplain to the Earl of Berkeley, one of the Lords Justices of Ireland. However, when he reached Ireland he found that the secretaryship had already been given to another. But he soon obtained the living of Laracor, Agher, and Rathbeggan, and the prebend of Dunlavin in St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin. At Laracor, a mile or two from Trim, County Meath, and twenty miles (32 km) from Dublin, Swift ministered to a congregation of about fifteen people, and had abundant leisure for cultivating his garden, making a canal (after the Dutch fashion of Moor Park), planting willows, and rebuilding the vicarage. As chaplain to Lord Berkeley, he spent much of his time in Dublin and traveled to London frequently over the next ten years. In 1701, Swift published, anonymously, a political pamphlet, A Discourse on the Contests and Dissentions in Athens and Rome.
Writer

In February 1702, Swift received his Doctor of Divinity degree from Trinity College, Dublin. That spring he traveled to England and returned to Ireland in October, accompanied by Esther Johnson—now twenty years old—and his friend Rebecca Dingley, another member of William Temple’s household. There is a great mystery and controversy over Swift’s relationship with Esther Johnson nicknamed “Stella”. Many[who?] hold that they were secretly married in 1716.
During his visits to England in these years Swift published A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books (1704) and began to gain a reputation as a writer. This led to close, lifelong friendships with Alexander Pope, John Gay, and John Arbuthnot, forming the core of the Martinus Scriblerus Club (founded in 1713).
Swift became increasingly active politically in these years. From 1707 to 1709 and again in 1710, Swift was in London, unsuccessfully urging upon the Whig administration of Lord Godolphin the claims of the Irish clergy to the First-Fruits and Twentieths (“Queen Anne’s Bounty”), which brought in about £2,500 a year, already granted to their brethren in England. He found the opposition Tory leadership more sympathetic to his cause and Swift was recruited to support their cause as editor of the Examiner when they came to power in 1710. In 1711, Swift published the political pamphlet “The Conduct of the Allies,” attacking the Whig government for its inability to end the prolonged war with France. The incoming Tory government conducted secret (and illegal) negotiations with France, resulting in the Treaty of Utrecht (1713) ending the War of the Spanish Succession. Swift was part of the inner circle of the Tory government, and often acted as mediator between Henry St. John (Viscount Bolingbroke) the secretary of state for foreign affairs (1710–15) and Robert Harley (Earl of Oxford) lord treasurer and prime minister (1711–1714). Swift recorded his experiences and thoughts during this difficult time in a long series of letters to Esther Johnson, later collected and published as The Journal to Stella. The animosity between the two Tory leaders eventually led to the dismissal of Harley in 1714. With the death of Queen Anne and accession of George I that year, the Whigs returned to power and the Tory leaders were tried for treason for conducting secret negotiations with France.
Also during these years in London, Swift became acquainted with the Vanhomrigh family and became involved with one of the daughters, Esther, yet another fatherless young woman and another ambiguous relationship to confuse Swift’s biographers. Swift furnished Esther with the nickname “Vanessa” and she features as one of the main characters in his poem Cadenus and Vanessa. The poem and their correspondence suggests that Esther was infatuated with Swift, and that he may have reciprocated her affections, only to regret this and then try to break off the relationship. Esther followed Swift to Ireland in 1714, where there appears to have been a confrontation, possibly involving Esther Johnson. Esther Vanhomrigh died in 1723 at the age of 35. Another lady with whom he had a close but less intense relationship was Anne Long, a toast of the Kit-Cat Club.
Maturity

Before the fall of the Tory government, Swift hoped that his services would be rewarded with a church appointment in England. However, Queen Anne appeared to have taken a dislike to Swift and thwarted these efforts. The best position his friends could secure for him was the Deanery of St. Patrick’s, Dublin. With the return of the Whigs, Swift’s best move was to leave England and he returned to Ireland in disappointment, a virtual exile, to live “like a rat in a hole”. Once in Ireland, however, Swift began to turn his pamphleteering skills in support of Irish causes, producing some of his most memorable works: Proposal for Universal Use of Irish Manufacture (1720), Drapier’s Letters (1724), and A Modest Proposal (1729), earning him the status of an Irish patriot.Also during these years, he began writing his masterpiece, Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts, by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, and then a captain of several ships, better known as Gulliver’s Travels. Much of the material reflects his political experiences of the preceding decade. For instance, the episode in which the giant Gulliver puts out the Lilliputian palace fire by urinating on it can be seen as a metaphor for the Tories’ illegal peace treaty; having done a good thing in an unfortunate manner. In 1726 he paid a long-deferred visit to London, taking with him the manuscript of Gulliver’s Travels. During his visit he stayed with his old friends Alexander Pope, John Arbuthnot and John Gay, who helped him arrange for the anonymous publication of his book. First published in November 1726, it was an immediate hit, with a total of three printings that year and another in early 1727. French, German, and Dutch translations appeared in 1727, and pirated copies were printed in Ireland. Swift returned to England one more time in 1727 and stayed with Alexander Pope once again. The visit was cut short when Swift received word that Esther Johnson was dying and rushed back home to be with her. On 28 January 1728, Esther Johnson died; Swift had prayed at her bedside, even composing prayers for her comfort. Swift could not bear to be present at the end, but on the night of her death he began to write his The Death of Mrs. Johnson. He was too ill to attend the funeral at St. Patrick’s. Many years later, a lock of hair, assumed to be Esther Johnson’s, was found in his desk, wrapped in a paper bearing the words, “Only a woman’s hair.” Death became a frequent feature in Swift’s life from this point. In 1731 he wrote Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift, his own obituary published in 1739. In 1732, his good friend and collaborator John Gay died. In 1735, John Arbuthnot, another friend from his days in London, died. In 1738 Swift began to show signs of illness, and in 1742 he appears to have suffered a stroke, losing the ability to speak and realizing his worst fears of becoming mentally disabled. (“I shall be like that tree,” he once said, “I shall die at the top.”) To protect him from unscrupulous hangers on, who had begun to prey on the great man, his closest companions had him declared of “unsound mind and memory.” However, it was long believed by many that Swift was really insane at this point. In his book Literature and Western Man, author J.B. Priestley even cites the final chapters of Gulliver’s Travels as proof of Swift’s approaching “insanity”. In 1744, Alexander Pope died. Then, on October 19, 1745, Swift died. After being laid out in public view for the people of Dublin to pay their last respects, he was buried in his own cathedral by Esther Johnson’s side, in accordance with his wishes. The bulk of his fortune (twelve thousand pounds) was left to found a hospital for the mentally ill, originally known as St. Patrick’s Hospital for Imbeciles, which opened in 1757, and which still exists as a psychiatric hospital.
( http : // en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Swift). May 30th 2011

2.4 The Synopsis of Gulliver’s Travels
Part I: A Voyage to Lilliput and Blefuscu
4 May 1699 — 13 April 1702
The book begins with a very short preamble in which Lemuel Gulliver, in the style of books of the time, gives a brief outline of his life and history prior to his voyages. He enjoys travelling, although it is that love of travel that is his downfall.
During his first voyage, Gulliver is washed ashore after a shipwreck and finds himself a prisoner of a race of people normal human beings, less than 6inches high, who are inhabitants of the neighbouring and rival countries of Lilliput. After giving assurances of his good behaviour, he is given a residence in Lilliput and becomes a favourite of the court. From there, the book follows Gulliver’s observations on the Court of Lilliput. He is also given the permission to roam around the city on a condition he not harm their subjects. Gulliver assists the Lilliputians to subdue their neighbours the Blefuscudians by stealing their fleet. However, he refuses to reduce the country to a province of Lilliput, displeasing the King and the court. Gulliver is charged with treason and sentenced to be blinded. With the assistance of a kind friend, Gulliver escapes to Blefuscu, where he spots and retrieves an abandoned boat and sails out to be rescued by a passing ship which safely takes him back home.

Part II: A Voyage to Brobdingnag
20 June 1702 — 3 June 1706
When the sailing ship Adventure is steered off course by storms and forced to go in to land for want of fresh water, Gulliver is abandoned by his companions and found by a farmer who is 72 feet (22 m) tall (the scale of Lilliput is approximately 1:12; of Brobdingnag 12:1, judging from Gulliver estimating a man’s step being 10 yards (9.1 m)). He brings Gulliver home and his daughter cares for Gulliver. The farmer treats him as a curiosity and exhibits him for money. The word gets out and the Queen of Brobdingnag wants to see the show. She loves Gulliver and he is then bought by her and kept as a favourite at court.
Since Gulliver is too small to use their huge chairs, beds, knives and forks, the queen commissions a small house to be built for Gulliver so that he can be carried around in it. This is referred to as his “travelling box.” In between small adventures such as fighting giant wasps and being carried to the roof by a monkey, he discusses the state of Europe with the King. The King is not impressed with Gulliver’s accounts of Europe, especially upon learning of the usage of guns and cannons. On a trip to the seaside, his travelling box is seized by a giant eagle which drops Gulliver and his box right into the sea where he is picked up by some sailors, who return him to England.

Part III: A Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib, and Japan
5 August 1706 — 16 April 1710
After Gulliver’s ship is attacked by pirates, he is marooned close to a desolate rocky island, near India. Fortunately he is rescued by the flying island of Laputa, a kingdom devoted to the arts of music and mathematics but unable to use them for practical ends. Laputa’s method of throwing rocks at rebellious surface cities also seems the first time that aerial bombardment was conceived as a method of warfare. While there, he tours the country as the guest of a low-ranking courtier and sees the ruin brought about by blind pursuit of science without practical results, in a satire on bureaucracy and the Royal Society and its experiments. At The Grand Academy of Lagado great resources and manpower are employed on researching completely preposterous and unnecessary schemes such as extracting sunbeams from cucumbers, softening marble for use in pillows, learning how to mix paint by smell, and uncovering political conspiracies by examining the excrement of suspicious persons (see muckraking). Gulliver is then taken to Balnibarbi to await a trader who can take him on to Japan. While waiting for passage, Gulliver takes a short side-trip to the island of Glubbdubdrib, where he visits a magician’s dwelling and discusses history with the ghosts of historical figures, the most obvious restatement of the “ancients versus moderns” theme in the book. In Luggnagg he encounters the struldbrugs, unfortunates who are immortal, but not forever young, but rather forever old, complete with the infirmities of old age and considered legally dead at the age of eighty. After reaching Japan, Gulliver asks the Emperor “to excuse my performing the ceremony imposed upon my countrymen of trampling upon the crucifix”, which the Emperor grants. Gulliver returns home, determined to stay there for the rest of his days.

Part IV: A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms
7 September 1710 – 2 July 1715
Despite his earlier intention of remaining at home, Gulliver returns to the sea as the captain of a merchantman as he is bored with his employment as a surgeon. On this voyage he is forced to find new additions to his crew who he believes to have turned the rest of the crew against him. His crew then mutiny, and after keeping him contained for some time resolve to leave him on the first piece of land they come across and continue as pirates. He is abandoned in a landing boat and comes first upon a race of (apparently) hideous deformed and savage humanoid creatures to which he conceives a violent antipathy. Shortly thereafter he meets a horse and comes to understand that they call themselves Houyhnhms (which in their language means “the perfection of nature”), and that they are the rulers, while the deformed creatures called Yahoos are human beings in their base form. Gulliver becomes a member of the horse’s household, and comes to both admire and emulate the Houyhnhnms and their lifestyle, rejecting his fellow humans as merely Yahoos endowed with some semblance of reason which they only use to exacerbate and add to the vices Nature gave them. However, an Assembly of the Houyhnhnms rules that Gulliver, a Yahoo with some semblance of reason, is a danger to their civilization, and expels him. He is then rescued, against his will, by a Portuguese ship, and is surprised to see that Captain Pedro de Mendez, a Yahoo, is a wise, courteous and generous person. He returns to his home in England, but he is unable to reconcile himself to living among Yahoos and becomes a recluse, remaining in his house, largely avoiding his family and his wife, and spending several hours a day speaking with the horses in his stables.


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

3.1 Research Design
The researcher analyzes using the qualitative method. It is easy used for researching where human is performed as subject. Wolfgang Donsbach says: Qualitative is always descriptive, so the result of analysis in the form of description, not in the form of number. In qualitative research nothing is trivial, because every event is key to open and understand something. In this study the researcher wants to get objective description about the kind of conflict that happen to the main character on the novel “Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift.

3.2 Data Source & Research data
The Source of data are taken from the novel “Gulliver’s Travels” as the primer data and theories taken from other references which support the opinion of the researcher as the secondary data. The primer and secondary data are collected and analyzed in order get valid finding and discussion.
Research data are:
1. The kinds of conflict showed in the main character Lemuel Gulliver in the novel “Gulliver’s Travels”
2. The resolution of the conflicts showed in the novel “Gulliver’s Travels”

3.3 Data Collection Procedure
The data of this study are the chapter of dialogue quotations of the novel that exist in the simple of the study. The data collections are base on the purposes of the study. So, to collect the data, the writer of this study will use some steps:
1. Reading and understanding the novel “Gulliver’s Travels”.
2. Conducting close reading toward chapter or dialogues in the novel.
3. Choosing the data dealing with problem that will be analyzed.
4. Selecting the data dealing with the purpose the study.
5. Conduct and analyze the collected data.

3.4 Data Analysis Procedure
The steps to analyze the data are as follow:
1. Analysis the data based on the classification which refer to the main character’s conflict in “Gulliver’s Travels”.
2. Determining the main character.
3. Describing the kinds of conflict found in “Gulliver’s Travels”.
4. Finding the dominant conflict faced by the main character by comparing all conflicts showed in the novel.
5. Describing the resolution solve by the main character in “Gulliver’s Travels”
6. Concluding the research


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Swift,Jonathan. 1973. Gulliver’s Travels. Hong Kong. Oxford university press. Warwick house. Hong Kong

Sujiman, Panuti. 1984. Kamus Istilah Sastra. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.
( http : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Swift). May 30th 2011

(http : //www.businessdictionary.com/definition/conflict.html). May 30th 2011

NAME : RIYANAH
CLASS : BAHASA INGGRIS 2008 E
SUBJECT : WRITING

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study

A feminist is keenly interested in gender issues, roles and represention. Feminist also wants to simultaneously criticize representions complicit with particulary while recovering, reading and celebrating texts that address the interesting and need of women.
Feminist criticism is a literature approach which correct or supplement what may be regarded as a predominantly male-dominated critical perspective with a feminist consciousness and talking about gender configuration and qualities, or male/female social role comes up as area for analysis whenever gender roles are shifting. Gender is often major focus of thought and writing in popular culture and in theory because gender roles seem to shift in just about every time period in relation to all kinds of factors, such as war, economic or nations of morality. Because of this song, it seems with feminism, so the writer has heavily desire to analyze this song.
The poem or Stanza’s song usually express ideas, imagination, feeling and thought based on human experiences. Therefor, lyric of song are also interesting to be analyzed. In this case the analysis will focus on study of feminist literary criticism on “Mary Jane” song of Alanis Morissette.
Hence every singer has different character and lyrics, when they brought heir song. Talking about song remain us to the poem. The component of song is from poem or stanza that set to the music, intended to be sung. According to E.D Hirsch in this book “A first Dictionary of Culture Literary” basically there are many kinds of music that every singer has different way, like Rock ‘n Roll, Round Soprana Voice, A spiritual, Symphony, Pop, etc.

1.2 Statement of the study
The writer will try to analyze a feminist literary criticism on “Mary Jane” song by Alanis Morissette as follows:
a. What views of author’s are included in “Mary Jane” song ?
b. Does “Mary Jane” song belong to the one of views on the lyrics ?
1.3 Purposes of the study
The purposes of the study are aimed to answer the problems above by analyzing the song in details, that are:
a. To find out what views of feminist literary criticism included in the lyrics song.
b. To find out what the author’s background
1.4 Limitation of the study
This study will concentrate on the analyzing some views on feminist litery criticism in the lyrics of “Mary jane” song, and is that belonging to the one of views on fenminist litery criticism.
1.5 Significance of the study
The writer hopes the result will add the readers’ knowledge of things concern to the criticism of literary on “Mary jane” song. This is also hoped that this study will attract the student of English Department to analyze the song more deeply.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 The meaning of literaturere
Literature is one of ways of experiencing the world around us through our imagination. literature, in its broadest sense, may be classified into two groups:Literature knowledge or informative literature the function of this kind of literature is the present information, to teach and to offer knowledge.
Literature of power or imaginative literature the function is to entertain to move, to arouse thoughts and feeling, into this group are novels, short-stories, poem, plays, etc.
We can categoriese this kind of literature into two parts:
1. Literature of escape or escaped literature
This types has following characteristics:
a. An escape from the real world and its trouble
b. Crude contrast between god and evil
c. A good deal of physical conflict among the characters
d. Superficial more message and teaching
e. A happy ending closed plot
2. Literature of interpretation or interpretative literature
This types following characteristics:
a. Taking us deeper into the real world
b. To broaden deepen and sharpen our awareness of life
c. Giving deep and subtle illumination into human life and behavior
d. Having a deep moral message and teaching of life
2.2 Poetry
2.2.1 The meaning of poetry
Poem is derived from the greek world “poem” means to contruct. It develops to become “poetess” which means a man who contructs a poem. Poetry is often though of as the most difficult of the three literary modes of argue.if poetry is thought of as being complexity its partly because of the writing of certain techniques, and partly because it tends to condense and compress experience and comments, making it perhaps the most concentrated form of literature. It uses the techniques of METRE, RHYTME, DICTION, IMAGERY, AND RHYTHM.

2.2.2 Annotated outline of poetry
a. Title
The title of a poem, usually gives as an idea of what the poem is about, it may tell of what happens
b. Word meaning/word choice
There are two kinds of meanings;
Denotative meaning : in literary usage the denotation of a word is its primary meaning; such as the dictionary ordinarily specifies or the meningaccording to the dictionary. It is a reasonable or intellectual meaning.
Connotation meaning : is the secondary or an accompanying meaning which is commonly suggest or implies and Matin it says, “connotation is idea or quality suggested a word in adition to its main meaning” (1980 84), these are usually changes.
c. Imagery
An imagery is a representation in words of sense experience
d. Symbol
A syimbol is something that means more than what it actually
e. figure of speech
figure of speech is the expression that gives variety or force, using words out of their literal meaning
– Simile
Simile is a stated comparison between two things that are very different, or comparison of two ulike things by use of “like” or “as”
– Metaphor
Methapore is a word which in standart ( or literal ) usage denotes one kind of thing, quality or action is implied to another, in the form of statement of identify instead of comparison.
– Personification
Is a form of methapore in which a life less object, an animal or an idea is made to act like a person
– Hyperbola
Is an exaggerated statement used to heighten effect or deliberet exaggerated on the part of the an author, in order to emphasize`a point
f. Rhyme
Is the repetition of the sound of the last word in the two or more lines of the poetry
g. Rhythm
Is essential in poetry, Rhytm in poetry is similar to rhytm inmusic
h. Lyric
Is expressing direct
i. Free verse
Is a form of poetry in which the ordinary roles of line length and strict metrical regularity are relaxed somewhat
j. Ballad

2.3 Sociology approach to feminist study
2.3.1 The position of women in histories of sociology
In the sociology, studies in family or sexes and sex meanwhile the essence of work are focused to the men and their life (Smith, 1974; Nebraska sociology feminist collective, 1983).
2.3.2 Contemporary theorists approach to the women study
There are three contemporary approach to the women study. Sociology that explain to women in the social life : there are functionalist structural approach, sex’s perspective role, and perspective conflict, each of them are of social work and also interactions are preparing many models to propose sociology practice by and about women.

2.4 Feminist approach to the women study
A. The Developing Of A Feminist Theory
A change to feminist politics happened, when the feminist shows their theories to clears women’s autonom likes, women’s right to politic, social, economic, to take herself on intellectualism (Gross, 1986: 193). Gross explained four thing that has the same theory at the beginning.
Their firstly women is as a subject and also object of knowledge, with knowledge to be rightful or legitimate. Secondly, all of method, procedure, opinion, and the technique of theories before are questionable. The third, with using automatic theory, feminist just not develop to women’s persprective and these issues, but also the fourth, the feminist theories just not to contradict or receive the writing that has been give These theories have the same in focus to thewomen apparitions, also theways to solve that offered to social changes and individuals.
B. The Feminist Frameworks
In frances revolution the west Europan the social change in greatly, preparing many arguments of politic, moral and ideas about “The developing, contract, base characterization and the reason”. As revolves connection and procedures traditionally (Kandal, 1985:5), as assumpation when, female given with the same acces to compete they will be successful. The liberary feminist specially ways to neglect analyze systematically about structure factors, and to believe whether the social obstructions can be solve by individual effort and government intervation.
Mary Wallstone craft, Aphra Behn, and other writer in 80’s expressed, women have also common sense capacity, Hence has a matter of course if they have the same rights with male (spencer, 1983:4). Wallstone craft deeply shows that the low of women’s intellectual happened ause of women have less of education in not at all chance.

THE BIOGRAPHY OF ALANIS MORISSETTE AND SONGS
A Biography Of Alanis Morissette
A long with counterparts jewel and Fiona Apple,- Alania Morissette was one of the most successful singers and songwriters to ride in on the second wave of girl rock in the mid 90’s. She was born on june 1, 1974, in Ottawa, Canada by French Canadian and Hungarian parents. By the age of 10, precious Morissette began her music career as a singer and performer but was first a regular on the kid’s TV show “You can’t do that on Television”. With money she saved from her TV work, Morissette recorded herself penned songs “Find the right Man” and “Fate stay with me” with Rich Dodson (The stampede’s) in Toronto and released it as a single. She spent most of her prepubescent years performing throught Canada, singing “O Canada” at sporting events and even making the require appearance on “Star search”.
Howe, Morissette and keyboardist serge Cote put together her dance tunes while Klovan groomed her looks with assistance from clothing retailers. Morissette would end up modeling for a Dalmy’s catalogue and made in store appearance.
Howe and Klovan then set their sights on a record deal for the singer. They produced an expensive and self-financed video for one of the Howe demos called “Walk away” filmed around the Eiffel Towar in France.
In March 1992, she went to the Juno Awards after being nominated for three catagories: “Single Of The Year”,”Best Dance Record”and”Most Promising Female Vocalist” (the latter award she won). Her debut album eventlly sold 200,000, which made it a tough act to follow.
Over two years she worked with an estimated 100 songwriters with the little useable material because Morissette was exercising her creativity and the songwriters were merely hired guns trying to fill spaces on her next album.
Ballard and Morissette did a showcase for excess at the label and she was signed immediately. “You Oughta Know” was issued on a compilation CD with a music magazines. The audience reaction was instant and the song was soon added to stations right across the US.
Not wanting to repeat of her previous monetary fiasco with MCA, Morissette took no advance royalties and instead negotiated a percentage based on future sales. Figuring her album would do standard 200,000 to 250,000 units, Warner Music agreed.
“Jagged Little Pill” recad up the charts and critics slammed it as Morissette opportunistic attempt at riding the ‘alternative’ music bandwagon. The album would go on to have 5 Top-10 singles and sell over 15 million copies worldwide.

THE LYRIC OF “MARY JANE”SONG

Mary Jane

What’s the matter Mary Jane, you had a hard day
As you place don’t disturb sign on the door
You lost your place in the line again, what a pity
You never seem to want dance anymore
Its long way down

On this roller coaster
The last chance streetcar
And you’re on it

I hear you’re counting sheep again Mary Jane
What’s the pont of trying to dream anymore
I hear you’re losing weight again Mary Jane
Do you ever wonder who you’re losing it for

Well it’s full speed baby
In the morning direction
There’s a view more bruises, if that’s the way
You insist on heading

Please be honest Mary Jane, Are you happy
Please don’t censor your tears
You’re the sweet erasure. And you’re on your way
You’re the last great innocent. And that’s why I Love You
So take this moment Mary Jane, and be selfish

Worry not about the cars that go by
All that matters Mary Jane is your freedom
Keep warm my dream,,keep dream
Tell me….
Tell me….
What’s the matter Mary Jane……….

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design
The writer uses the descriptive method to analysis. It is a method that is used in analyzing and researching subject matter. It means that the writer proves her hypothesis by describing idea based on the lyrics on the song and also other books related to the discussion.
3.2 method of analyzing
The writer in the method of analyzing that is used in analyzing and researching subject matter.
3.3 Data Source and Research Data
The data source is the sentence from the song “ Mary Jane “. Every sentences in the song as a resource to analysis, so the writer can conclude that research will be valid result. Research data are :
1. The beckground of Alanis Morissette the song Mary Jane
2. The feminist literatur critism
3.4 Procedur of data collection
The data collections are based on the purpose of the study . so, the collect the data, writer of this study will use some steps :
1. Library research
2. Book
3. Computer or internet
4. Articles
5. Report books
6. Literary histories
7. Script and psychological books

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abrams, M.H. 1975. A Glossary of Literature Terms. New York: Rinehart & Wiston Company
Aminudin.1990. Pengantar Kesusastraan Indonesia, Jakarta: PT. Gramedia
Benston, M. 1982. Feminism and Critique of Scientifict Method. Montreal: Elack Rage Books

NAME : FAIZATUN NIKMAH
CLASS: BAHASA INGGRIS 2008 E
SUBJECT: WRITING
NIM : 1106080076
THE USE OF ICE CREAM DREAM BOOK FOR DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ ACTIVITY IN WRITING NARRATIVE TEXTS

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
in Indonesia , English is considered as foreign language. As a matter of fact, English is almost needed in every factor of life. It is important to master English as essentially in international relationship. English is used as mean of communication countries of the word.
The teachers have to improve the competence which will be explained to the students, though the social condition. Beside the competent graduated increase of quality will gained by school reform which indicates with increase of parent’s participant, cooperate with industry , school management flexibility and the other case that can develop the quality in conducive situation.
In learning English, the students must acquire the four skills in English for learner. It is impossible to be successfully fluent enough without mastering them well. They are writing, reading, speaking and listening. Writing is one of English skills that must be taught to the students. It is important for them because it can explore their idea and imagination. According to Byrne (1981: 1) writing is the act of forming symbols (letter or combination of letter) which are related to the ideas we want to pour out. The symbols have to be arranged from a paragraph. Writing can be said to be an act of forming these symbols, marking mark on plat surface.
1.2 Statement of the Problems

Based on the background above, the writer wants to find the effective strategy to be used in teaching and learning English. The statements of the problem are:
1. What techniques does the teacher use to explain the lesson in writing?
2. What activities occur in writing lesson?
3. What the student attitude toward the writing lesson in JCOT stage?
4. How is the student achivemant in writing?
1.3 Objectives of the Study

Derived from the statement of the problems above, the purposes of study is
1. To know Technique the teacher was to explain writing subject.
2. To know activities in writing subject
3. To know the students attitude towards, the writing lesson in JCOT stage.
4. to know how effectiveness ice cream dream book to develop student writing skill.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The writer expects the result of the study will be useful and helpful for Teaching English as foreign language either for the teacher or the students.

1. English Teacher
It is expected that the English teacher always tries to find out and use the new strategy as the alternative one to maximize the students activity.

2. The Students
It is expected that student will practice their English effectively to get better result and understand every topic in it. So, the students will prove it and do by themselves to find the way out of the problem more than they copy the information from their teacher. It makes the learning process and the issuing knowledge stick up on their mind.

1.5 Scope and Limitation of Study
The scope of the study is to discuss the technique of teaching English in general. However, the writer limits the discussion on the technique of teaching English using competence- based curriculum. By this way, she hopes that she can discuss it deeply and implement it in teaching and learning process effectively. The scope of the study is limited to:

1. The tenth class of students.
2. Applying “JCOT” stage in writing skill in written form.
3. Learning : to gain knowledge or skill by study experience or being tau).
4. Writing : The writer activity to express everything they have read, seen, heard or,
5. JCOT : Join Construction Of Text is one of stage which must be passed in Teaching and learning process in competence based curriculum. (Depdiknas 2004)

CHAPTER II

2.1 What is JCOT?
Joint Construction Of Text (JCOT) is one of the stages which must be passed in teaching and learning process in competence-based curriculum. In this stage the students do their assignment with their partner or their group, create a simple conversation or produce a paragraph then present their answer in front of the class. In Joint Construction Of Text the students discuss the topic that will be made with their group, about the component of generic structure from the text.
They can make a draft from the text after they get agreement from their group. When they make a draft there is better if they make a picture or flashcard to make a paragraph more interesting. They can draw by themselves or cut it from a newspaper or magazine. After they finish to make a draft, they can consult to the facilitator in order to read and get a comment from the facilitator. They can try to tell the paragraph without the text one by one in their group.
Based on the media education English, today classroom management becomes one of techniques to improve the teaching language. The advantages of it are the influence of situation to the feeling in using language and degree of interaction between the students. A media can show the important role to motivate the students optimally in a conducive situation, language becomes a contextual in teaching, and helps to keep discipline activity. Good classroom management can make the student socialization with another friend better.
Writing may truly be considered the most sophisticated. In listening and in reading, the students receive a message formulated by another. Their role receptive even though they may be actively interpreting and analyzing what they are hearing or reading. In speaking, the students are engaged in communicating their own ideas and feelings, but with approximations and explanations, conversation involves give and take with an interlocutor. According to Valetta says communication through the written word. On the other hand, possesses a certain degree of finality and demands real proficiency from the writer if it is to be effective (1977:217). It can be said that in developing the
2.3 Ice Cream Everywhere Lesson Plan

Book Summary
This Rhyme Time Reader, celebrating the joys of eating ice cream, will appeal to children while reinforcing essential literacy skills that lead to reading success. A note to parents from an education specialist gives specific examples of how to use the book with children to support literacy development.

Objective
students will engage in activities to hear and identify rhyming words, read familiar words on their own, relate personal experiences to the text, and develop creative-thinking and writing skills.

Before Reading
Show the students book Ice Cream Everywhere. First ask your students if they like ice cream. Do they have a favorite flavor? Next, ask them to describe their favorite ice cream treat (E.g., ice cream cone, sandwich, sundae, banana split, etc.). Record their comments on chart paper. Review the list with them. Can they think of any more ice cream treats to add to the list? Tell them that they will read the book and compare their favorite ways to eat ice cream with those depicted in the story.

Teaching Plan

Booktalk
Ask the students to share their favorite part of the story. Did the story remind them of an experience they have had? Compare their ice cream list with the book to see if their favorite ice cream treats were depicted.

Activities

Time to Chime!
1. Reread the story several times so thestudents become familiar with the text. Read with expression to emphasize the rhythm, rhyme, and joyous mood of the story. As you reread the book encourage the class to chime in. Leave off the last rhyming word of each rhyming-word set so they can complete the sentence. Encourage them to read familiar words like I, you, and, we, all, in, and the.
2. Now invite the students to read the story together without a teacher. Encourage them to read with expression. They can even add hand movements to dramatize the different ways to eat ice cream as they pretend to slurp a float, make ice cream soup, or lick ice cream on a stick.
Rhyming Words for Writing Words
Materials
• Index cards
• Small basket or index card holder
• Pencils
• Lined writing paper
1. Ask the students to identify the rhyming-word sets in the book. Have them take turns reading each page. Then ask the child who just read to identify the two rhyming words. Write both rhyming words on an index card. Leave space so additional rhyming words can be added later.
2. After they have recorded all of the rhyming words, ask them to notice which words have similar spellings and which words are very different. Invite them to discuss the differences and similarities.
3. Divide the cards among the children during small-group time. Ask each group to think of additional words that rhyme with the words listed on the cards and add them to the list.
4. Place the rhyming-word cards in a container in the writing area. Include additional index cards with high-frequency words. Invite the children to use the word cards to compose their own stories. Encourage them to try and develop sentences that use rhyming words. Provide time for them to share their stories with their classmates.
Ice Cream Dream Treat
Materials
• Construction paper, drawing paper, and lined paper
• Glue sticks
• Child safety scissors
• Pencils, crayons, and markers
1. Provide the children with a variety of art materials and ask them to design an ice cream dream treat. It can be a drawing or collage of a dream ice cream cone, sundae, or something very imaginative such as a bathtub filled with ice cream. Encourage creativity and individuality.
2. After they have completed their art project, provide them with writing materials to create a story about their ice cream dream treat. Schedule a day for children to share their work with classmates. Celebrate their accomplishments with an ice cream party.

2.4. The Role of Student in Teaching Writing
The role of the students is as important as the role of the teacher. In writing process, Hudelson (1989) in O’Malley and Pierce states students are involved in the construction narratives on topics in which they have a personal interest (2001:138). Besides the students need to play an active role, they also need to be receptive to the constructive feedback provided by their teacher or classmates on their writing. By providing and receiving, it can help the students improve their writing.


CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

3.1. Research Design
In this research the researcher is just as the observer. She only observes the teaching and learning process to get the data. The obtaining the data is taken from observation and questionnaire in order to know the role of the treatment in the technique of teacher using competence-based curriculum.

3.2. Subject of the Study
According to Arikunto subject pelitian adalah subjek yang dituju untuk diteliti oleh peneliti. Jika kita berbicara tentang subjek penelitian, sebenarnya kita berbicara tentang unit analisis, yaitu subjek yang menjadi pusat penelitian atau sasaran peneliti.( 2002 : 223 ) The purpose of the subject of the study is to carry out the research, it has something to do with unit of analysis that is, the centre of the research of research target. The subject of the study was the sventh year of class B in MTs.Negri Tuban. The writer chooses this school with the consideration that the seventh year class in MTs.Negri Tuban have been using competence-based curriculum in teaching and learning process.

3.3. Instrument
Research instrument is the way in the research in which the researcher uses to look for the data suitable to the purpose of research. The researcher uses instrument to collection the data.
3.3.1. (Observation)
Observation is the act investigating something to get expected result. Observation is used to get the data on the technique teaching using competence-based curriculum. The research observation is in form of what people do and how they behave, what material conditions are, and how the physical surrounding and local population are mutually effect.

3.3.2. Questionnaire
Questionnaire is the act of giving question to the student which need writer answer. Questionnaire is gives the students and the teacher. The researcher gives several questions to know the student’s opinion, to analyze the data research uses qualitative descriptive method.

3.4. The Procedure of Collecting Data
The procedure of collecting data is step which the researcher looks for and collects the data suitable to the purpose of the research. Before collecting the data, the first step is to get a letter of recommendation signed by Dean of University of PGRI Ronggolawe Tuban for permission to conduct the research at MTs. Negri Tuban. The second step is give the recommendation letter to the headmaster of MTs. Negri Tuban. And then the writer do the research for about ten days. After that the writer give test by the questionnaire to get the data. And the last step is collect the data and take the letter from the MTs. Negri Tuban that explain about the writer research. The sample is 46 students. They get the treatment related to the teaching English using competence-based curriculum and the researcher gives 10 questionnaires to the students and the teacher.

3.5. Procedure of Data Analysis
The writer collects the data through questionnaire and observation. The result will be classified and counted based on the total percent of the data. The result itself will be organized depend on the tendency of students interest in JCOT stage of writing skill. How it gain motivation and interest through the data or less.


Cover of the book

BIBLIOGRAPHY

• Byrne, Donn. 1981. Teaching Writing Skill. United Kingdom: Longman.
• Depdiknas.2004. Materi Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Guru Bahasa Inggris SMA: Media Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris, Jawa Timur: Depdiknas.
http:/www.ehow.com/how2103642write-narrative-text-in-high-school-classroom.htmlizzlLeeHzRgl. THE USE OF ICE CREAM DREAM FOR
DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ ACTIVITY IN WRITING NARARIVE TEXTS AT JOIN CONTRUCTION OF TEXT (JCOT) STAGE
AT SEVENTH YEAR OF MTs.NEGERI TUBAN

IMPROVING SPEAKING ABILITY BY WORK IN PAIR AS AN ALTERNATIVE TEACHING AT THE ELEVENTH GRADE IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

PROPOSAL BY:
KAFAFI ZAHID
NPM : 1106080074
CLASS: 2008E

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY LANGUAGE AND ART EDUCATION
UNIROW TUBAN
2011

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
Speaking is one of way for the people to communication unit the other people receive the massage of the information. All of the people always speaking everyday. A good relationship need good communication too in order to the people understand about the topic they are speaking, of their native language.
Now English very important for education for teaching and learning. It is because English is international language. ALL many countries are taught English from elementary up to university, and everybody believe that English is one of the important language in the world. The students are faced the English is one of the important language in the world. The students are fact that English will bring the world. The one of English is very important in life. The students have to learn language still like reading, writing, listening and specially in spealing skill.
In Senior High School (SMA), English is one of the subject that have to be developed extensively although in primary and junior high school had taught. They had to improve the four skills to be called in English.
For speaking especially the students sometimes find a difficult to speak English because it does not their student can practice speak in English with their pair the can speak connectively in anywhere. They can speak about the topic they like. In the class, the students can speak with their pair. They would have each pair to speak or discuss the topic is high learned. At the time, then can come for word in to the class to demonstrate their result speaking to the other friends and the teacher.
From the explanation above, the writer interested and would like to research “IMPROVING SPEAKING ABILITY BY WORK IN PAIR AS AN ALTERNATIVE TEACHING AT THE ELEVENTH GRADE IN SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL”
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Based on the background of the study, the writer formulated the problem as follows
1. How to use the work in pair as alternative teaching to improve speaking ability?
2. Why does work in pair can as an alternative teaching to improve speaking ability?
3. What activities are done by the students during work in pair in the teaching?
1.3 The Purpose of Study
Based on the background of the study and statement of the problem, the researcher has the purpose of the study as follows:
1. To find abut how to use the work in pair as an alternative teaching to improve speaking ability.
2. To know why work in pair to be an alternative teaching to improve speaking ability.
3. To know the teacher’s activities during work in group to improve speaking ability.
1.4 The significance of the Study
The study is expected will be useful for the teachers and the students.
1. To the Teaches
The result of this study is become an alternative way to teach speaking in a class order to the teachers know the easier way to improve the way to teach.
2. To the Students
The writer hope the students will be able to speak in English well.
The students are hoped can study speak English with their pair.
1.5 The Limitation of the Study
In order to make this study more specific, the writer limits of escape I his study. This study focus on the eleventh grade of SMA.
1.6 The Definition of Key Term
To clarify the better understanding of the study, the Researches defines several tem as follow
1. IMPROVING : Change that improves something or somebody to better Oxford : 216)
2. SPEAKING : An ability of produce the utterance in oral communication ( Hornby 1984 : 1280 )
3. GROUP : number of people or things together (Oxford :191)
4. ALTERNATIVE : that may be used or done instead that you choose to do out of two or more possibilities (Oxford : 12 )
5. TEACHING : is taught and give instruction to somebody to get knowledge to do something (Oxford : 425)

CHAPTER II
RELATED LITETATUR

Speaking Ability
The Teaching Of Speaking
The Method Of teaching Speaking
Work In Pair
Work In Pair
The Process of Work Pair
The Teacher Role in Work in Pair
Speaking Proficiency Measurement
Components of Speaking Ability
a. Ideas
b. Fluency
c. Vocabulary
d. Grammar
e. Pronounciation
f. Stress
g. Intonation

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

Research method consist of all things related the research. It is again to find the answer of the research problems stated earlier. The chapter discusses research method which is consist of : Research design, subject of the study, instruments and procedure of data collection.
This discussion as follows:
Research Design
This research is descriptive study, descriptive research is design to obtain information concerning the current status of phenomena in a particular place. ( Arikvnto,2006 : 230 ). The researcher tries to get information about the phenomena. It means that the researcher would like to know about improving speaking ability by work in pair. In the research the researcher use several of methods to collect data like questionnaire documentation, observation and test.

Subject of Study
The researcher will do the research at eleventh grade and the samples subject are related teacher and students. The researcher take the grade because want to know the improving speaking ability by work in pair.

Instruments of Collecting Data
Instruments of research has an important role in increasing the research, because instruments is a media for the researcher that use to collect the data in order to be easy to solve the research problem to be perfect and success.

Interview
Interview is method to collect data by ask the respondent or in formal directly for getting information. It means that the aim to get information who was needed by researcher. The form of in interview is oral questions.
Observation
Observation is one of the way collecting data that used by the researcher in this research. The purpose of the researcher is to get data. Which there are material technique, method that applied by the teacher in teaching learning factually. In the research the researcher want to increase the speaking skill. And also observation is loot at the phenomena, action process.
Questionnaire
Questionnaire is a data collection method in which respondents read and answer questions in q writer format. The purpose is to get some information and data related to the problem of the study will be observed.
The writer used the structured questionnaire because there were seventy respondents in this study and it was easy to analyze the result of the observation.

Documentation
The data collected from the documentation is one by:
1. The researcher do observation and interview to the teacher
2. The researcher try to analyze the data

3.5 Data Analysis
The techniques of data analysis was an important part in a research by the researcher to get information of material and test that used in the teaching learning the result of research.
Speaking
Test would be very important to know the result of the technique of learning in the class, because with test the teacher can make a conclusion the way the teacher use in the class.
To answer the problem the researcher use a test of speaking test with percentage = F X 100%
N
Note :
F : The frequency of number students who can be speaking well
N : The total number of students

The following table is used to place the student’s score
From the result of the test given

The Student’s result Value Range
In letter mark In numerical mark
Excellent A 90-100
Good B 70-89
Fair C 50-69
poor D 0-49

IMPROVING ENGLISH VOCABULARY THROUGH
GUESSING GAME TO THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
OF THE FOURTH GRADE AT SDN KOWANG I SEMANDING

PROPOSALBy :
Name: ADI SUCIPTO
NPM: 1106080088
Class: 2008E
ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF PGRI RONGGOLAWE TUBAN
2011

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study
It looks very important to present English subject for student at elementary school, because English is the primary language used in the modern area. It is used to transform sciences, technology and world modern area. it is used to transform sciences, technology and world information to the people of the world. Moreover, it is performed in formal forum or informal events where countries take part in it.
The children can learn foreign language easily, because their brain is more flexible (Lenneberg, 1967 in Wardhono, 2005:202). In general from three years to teenage have a sensitive in recognizing toward language even in bilingual family, they will change easily from one language to another because of that, many people believe that children will learn English faster than adult.
Another important reason why English has got to be taught to the elementary school student have the capacity for learning and acquiring a new language English easier. The student of elementary school should be able to read, listen, speak and write. What the student elementary school of beginner, need is vocabulary. Vocabulary is very important component to be taught because by mastering vocabulary the student can learn language easily.
Games can be used as text and picture. Language games according to Brown, are competitions which are designed to help the student to learn language. The aims of that games are to serve a joy in learning languages. Games can be used to practice communication, structure, vocabulary, encourage competition or cooperation to motivate and relax.
Dealing with the statement above, this study tries to find out that game can be useful technique in improving English vocabulary. Games provide necessary varieties language symbol in high degree of interest. Games represent many plays of games in vocabulary teaching since student can pronounce many words clearer and memorize English word well through it. On the reason above the writer interest and would like to research “IMPROVING ENGLISH VOCABULARY THROUGH GUESSING GAME TO THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL OF THE FOURTH GRADE AT SDN KOWANG I SEMANDING”.

1.2 Statement of the problems
Based on the background of the study, the writer formulated the problem as follows.
1) What kind of the games are appropriate to be used in improving English vocabulary through guessing game to the elementary school of the fourth grade at SDN Kowang I Semanding.
2) How does the teacher do to improve English vocabulary through guessing game to the elementary school of the fourth grade at SDN Kowang I Semanding.

1.3 Purpose of the study
Related to the statement of the problem stated above, the writer tries to solve the problems as follows:
1) To know what kinds of the games are appropriate to be used in improving English vocabulary through guessing game to the elementary school of the fourth grade at SDN Kowang I Semanding.
2) To know what does the teacher do to improve English vocabulary through guessing game the elementary school of the fourth grade at SDN Kowang I Semanding.

1.4 Significance of the study
The study is expected will be useful for the teacher and student.
1) For the teacher
The result of the study is become a source of information for English teacher in choosing a certain technique in improving vocabulary to student of elementary school.
2) For the student
By using games, the student will enjoy situation in learning language, it is hoped the student will remember the material easier.

1.5 Limitation of the study
This study is limited to discuss of improving English vocabulary through guessing games for student especially of concrete noun (classroom object, fruit, food, transportation, animal, etc) and action is limited to be done at SDN Kowang I Semanding.

1.6 Definition of the key terms
To the clarify the better understanding of the study, the researcher defines several term as follows:
1. Improving : To make something better in quality or condition.
2. Vocabulary : A set of lexemes, including single words, compound words and idioms.
3. Guessing Games : A game in which the object is to guess some kind of information, such as word, a phrase, etc.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Teaching vocabulary to the young learners
In teaching vocabulary, there are many ways which can be used by the teacher in presenting the material. They are:
1) Translation : The easiest where to improve the meaning to difficult words.
2) Explanation : The ways where the teacher has the teacher has revealed the words the student and explain them.
3) Synonym : The teacher give words which have same type and the same general meaning.
4) Antonym : The teacher give words which have different meaning.
5) Showing the real object : The teacher shows picture and explains them about what happen in the pictures or things that are in the pictures.

2.2 Games
The aim that games is to serve a joy in learning language. Games can be used to practice communication, structure, vocabulary, encourage competition or cooperation, to motivate and relax of students, to make work enjoyable, to practice language skill. Games have many uses and great deals of value in language learning.
2.2.1 Suitable Games for children
a. Guessing word
Objective : to encourage student to device the meaning of new vocabulary item contextual clues.
Language level : elementary and intermediate.
Equipment and material : paper and pencil
Rules of playing :
Allow the student several minutes in which to write a brief description of some object in the class to guess. Object maybe confined for a specific subject category, such as classroom. There should be four sentences in the description, beginning with the less obvious details and moving toward those that, make it easier to guess, student may call out the answer as quickly as they know the object.
The student receives four points to be guessed correctly after hearing the second sentence, two point the third and one point after the fourth student who have most points is the winner.
b. Guessing picture using power point
Objective : to encourage student device the meaning of new vocabulary by using picture
Language level : elementary and intermediate
Equipment and material : picture, computer, LCD projector
Rules of playing :
Allow the student several minutes in which to see the LCD projector, they will see the picture in slide show using power point, and then the teacher read the name of the picture and all of the students repeat the teacher saying. After finished look the slide show, the teacher divides the student become five or six group.
Each group must guess the name or activities in projector. There are six blocks, if the first block opened and the group can guess the picture they will get 60 point, the second block opened they will get 50 point, third until six block opened its automatic they will get 10 point, and if the group answer wrong the will get minus 10 point: the group with the most points is the winner.
2.2.2 The purpose of using Games
1. Student can relax and fun in teaching learning process.
2. Student can easier to practice about the material of the teacher given.
3. Games are a consolation that changes the bad becomes good condition for the student.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

Design of the study
In this study, the writer uses a descriptive quantitative method to know how far the student’s mastery in vocabulary through guessing games to the elementary school of the fourth grade at SDN Kowang I Semanding.

Subject of the study
Choosing of the subject is aimed to get a good result. It consists of population and sample.
Population
Population is a group of person or individual having quality or characteristics in common.
Sample
A sample is a part of population from which the research data are drawn.

Instrument of the study
English test
To know how far the student are able to memorize the vocabulary.
Questionnaire
The aim at giving questionnaire is to get the information about student opinion in English and situation.
Interview
In order to clarify doubts in responses at questionnaire, unstructured interview was conducted in a formal way with six selected subjects as the sample.

Procedure of collecting Data
The writer give to the student the test questionnaire consists of 40 items multiple choice type, based on the student’s opinion about English lesson especially by using guessing game. The questionnaire consisted of 10 students, then the writer interviewed directly the six student as sample.

Data Analysis
To analyze the data, the writer used some steps that are drawn on the table below.

REFERENCES

Lenneberg, 1967. 2005:202. Children Can Learning English Faster Than Adult.
Ary, Donald. Et.All. 1979. Introduction to Research in Education. New York; Holt Winston, inc.
(http://books.google.com/books?id=FqF7n0zGJm0C&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false)
(www.english -4kids.com) Word Guessing Game : ESL Vocabulary game.
(http://www.allfreeessays.com/essays/Children-Learn-Second-Language-Better-Than/15658.html) Children Learn Second Language Better Than Adults.

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